Meroitic / Oromo Ethiopian Continuity: Call for a Research Project

(Oromo Studies Association, 2005 Conference Proceedings, Washington D.C.) in: The Journal of Oromo Studies, vol. 14 no 1 (February/March 2007), p. 7 – 34

http://oromostudies.org/OSA-USER-FOLDER/josfiles/JOS%20volume%2014%20Number%201%20(2007).pdf

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-001.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-002.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-003.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-004.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-005.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-006.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-007.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-008.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-009.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-010.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-011.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-012.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-013.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-014.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-015.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-016.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-017.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-018.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-019.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-020.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-021.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-022.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-023.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-024.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-025.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-026.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-027.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-028.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-029.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-030.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-031.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-032.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-033.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-034.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-035.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-036.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-037.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-038.jpg

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-page-039.jpg

 

Download the article in Pdf

JOS volume 14 Number 1 (2007)-1-40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Advertisements

Zionist – Freemasonic – Jesuit Agendas in Conflict or Superposition: End Times’ Sequence & Trajectories

Shrewd commentators, who oppose present world’s negative developments and nature, find* that, within the context of divided Christianity, “healing the schism would be great”, and that there are “forces trying to bring the two churches together” (Catholic & Orthodox).

 

However, they also observe that, on the other hand, other projects, like the notorious, Kalergi plan and the ongoing Islamist immigration, truly gain momentum. Finding the two trends opposite to one another, they ask “why would Rome lay down to this?”.

 

Christian Reunification, Kalergi Plan, Mass Immigration, Europe’s Islamization – Zionists, Freemasons, Jesuits

 

The present article explains why the two, seemingly opposite, spirals and dynamics correspond to either different agendas or different agendas’ chapters and serve diverse trajectories, without truly being opposite to one another.

 

Indeed, it makes no sense for the European Christian churches (Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox) to reunite together, if one accepts to be overridden by the Islamization process. However, at this point, there are at work different projects and trajectories that are promoted by opposite forces, without however being frontally opposite to one another.

 

I. Anti-Messianic, Anti-Eschatological Freemasons: the Apostate Lodge

 

You know that the ‘elite’ is not one, but divided into Jesuits, Freemasons, and Zionists and each group has its centuries-old (or rather millennia-long) agenda. In addition, there are internal factions, which also pursue divergent agendas; in other words, these internal splits and factions do not exist for any other reason except agenda differentiation.

 

The main forces involved and their different agendas reveal automatically the existence of diverse eschatological/messianic plans or the absence / rejection thereof. (The latter is also to be reckoned with.)

 

The atheistic lodge Grand Orient de France (this is the bulk of the Scottish / French rite in France: it controls Le Droit Humain lodges and it is engaged in fierce fighting against the Grande Loge Nationale Francaise, which is an English rite outfit in France) not only does not promote eschatological / messianic plans, but also opposes all existing ones, be they Freemasonic, Jesuit or Zionist of origin/nature.

 

II. Schism within Ashkenazi, pseudo-Jewish, Khazarian Zionism

 

When I was in Israel (1984-1985) during my postgraduate studies (Egyptology / Assyriology), I came upon a Zionist branch that was also anti-eschatological and anti-messianic. What did they teach / propagate in their seminars? That the Messiah had already come, that ‘he’ is Eretz (the state of) Israel, and that we therefore live in the messianic times, when the Messiah (Israel) will progressively outshine the rest of the world (the Goyim).

 

So, it is only normal for that Zionist branch to cooperate with Grand Orient de France and with other similar forces (within the Zionist universe and outside of it) in order to promote stability and permanence of the Post WW II world. (By the way, the Clintons belong to this faction, contrarily to Netanyahu.)

 

The aforementioned two cases are only examples.

 

The Greater Israel plan is then not necessarily supported by all Zionist groups, because any plan linked to a personal Messiah would be rejected by the Zionists who identify the Messiah with the state of Israel itself.

 

However, I would say that today the mainstream Zionist world backs the Greater Israel plan; they associate a person with it; they prepare the erection of the Third Temple; some even say in public that they have identified who the future King of Israel is. Few boast having met him in person! And others try to conceal that they have truly come face to face with that atrocious creature. This Zionist plan entails various global developments and the rise of a sizeable Israel (from Euphrates to the Nile) to global prominence.

 

Before explaining what this can eventually mean, I would say that opposite eschatological / messianic plans (those of the Freemasons, of the Jesuits, and eventually of others) may

a. either be in direct opposition with the aforementioned (‘mainstream’) Zionist plan

b. or move on different trajectories that follow different time perspectives (what we would define as ‘short-run’, ‘mid-run’, long-run’).

 

This means that the force that promotes a long-run plan can eventually, under some conditions, and within some limits, may consent to a short-term plan, even if it from the first sight looks extremely opposite to the long-run plan. They may even use it – and this, I believe, is the true nature of the present Jesuit-Zionist alliance; that’s why Francis I avoids criticizing homosexuality, etc., etc., etc. These are minor and trivial points, if compared to the foremost geopolitical-eschatological plans of the Jesuit Order.

 

III. Each eschatological/messianic agenda involves also a different Messiah

 

Most people believe that ‘the elite’ wants to prepare the necessary conditions for their (fake) Messiah/Christ, who will be the long awaited Antichrist. This is very wrong; in fact, there will be many false Christs (pseudo-Christs) and only the last and more powerful one will be the Antichrist (the one mentioned in the Book of Revelation, and in Daniel). This is also consistent with Jesus’ prophecy or description of End times’ stages, namely the statement that ‘many’ will come pretending they are the Christ/Messiah.

 

I don’t believe that only Zionists, Freemasons and Jesuits will come up with their Messiahs, each of them with a different guy. There will be more than just three pseudo-Christs. There will be an Orthodox Russian Christ (at least there is a plan providing for him, elaborated among some independent circles in Russia); there will be at least two Mahdis (a Shia and a Sunni); there will be a Parsist Shosyant, and many other religions’ or sects’ expected messianic figures will appear too. This makes sense, and it only reconfirms Jesus’ words that “nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom” (Mark 13:8 New International Version – NIV).

 

{Key note: I never use KJV by the way – I did crosscheck it with the Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgata texts in hundreds of excerpts, and in most of the cases, the meaning of the text was terribly altered to be evidently adapted to Freemasonic concepts. KJV is an untrustworthy forgery and a theological fornication.}

 

The below interpretational diagrams are all wrong and simplistic:

  1. the Zionist Messiah is the Antichrist
  2. the Islamist Mahdi is the Antichrist

(actually no Muslim will believe a Mahdi without a re-appearing Islamic Prophet Jesus, so in that case, one has to expect a tandem or to see fake persons impersonating the roles ascribed to Mahdi and to Jesus as Islamic Prophet)

  1. the Zionist Messiah will eliminate the Islamist Mahdi
  2. the Islamist Mahdi will prevail over the Zionist Messiah

 

IV. A reminiscence of the end times of the Roman Res Publica

 

I believe that, in several successive ‘stages’ of 3.5 or 7 years duration (and this depends on what one considers as ‘stage’), three major circles will be completed.

 

I feel that these circles will be a sort of reminiscence of (or will have some analogy with) the last century of Roman Res Publica, which led to Imperium: Sulla-Cinna-Marius / Crassus-Pompey-Caesar / Marc Antony-Lepidus-Octavian Augustus. The three circles will be as follows.

 

V. Zionist Agenda & the Khazarian Greater Israel

 

Greater IsraelFor this purpose, mainstream Zionists need to ensure:

 

1. the pulverization of several surrounding Middle Eastern states (Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia) by different means, military, socio-political, geotechnical engineering (Egypt can entirely disappear with the quasi-totality of its population within few hours, if a 9.4 Richter earthquake takes place in Aswan and brings down the High Dam).

 

((By the way, the Amhara/Tigray Abyssinians, who control the vast colonial state of ‘Ethiopia’ with numerous subjugated nations that strive for national independence, and who are the allies of the Israeli Khazarian Zionists, have a seven centuries old ‘prophecy’, which became known to Westerners in the late 18th century; according to this ‘vision’, their state at the End Times would share borders – dividing Egypt – with a Jewish state named ‘Israel’ and located in Palestine. When this was published, there was no Zionist Congress!))

 

2. the collapse of Europe – and here fits the Kalergi plan

 

3. the first, small, ‘contained’ nuclear war between Russia and America that will destroy northern parts of European Russia and America’s East Coast

 

Jesuits accept most of this plan, but Freemasons oppose it in various ways. So, Freemasonic endeavors in opposition to the Zionist agenda may involve the following:

 

1. various defense lines against terrorists in Syria & Iraq; support of Iran (Freemasons have infiltrated extensively the Ayatullah regime)

 

2. the re-emergence of European totalitarianism, spirituality, and imperium

 

3. the preparations for the re-establishment of the US as a genuine republican state (as conceived by the Founding Fathers) in a small part of today’s US territory, mainly in the mountainous parts of the Middle West.

 

For Greater Israel to be truly a global power, there have to take place two different types of development:

a. Israel must expand territorially while major countries of the region have to disappear

and

b. Europe, Russia and America have to be pulled into an abysmal maelstrom of destruction, contraction, and insignificance

 

It seems there are two diverse options for Russia’s & America’s contraction, one being the aforementioned, ‘contained’ nuclear war, and the other involving

 

i. extraordinary natural disasters occurring in both, the eastern and the western extremities of the US and

 

ii. ‘color revolution’ against Kremlin.

 

In any case, great importance is given so that the area around Samara, Astrakhan, and the northern shores of the Caspian Sea is always protected.

 

The reason for this is that the local population in that region is not Russian, truly speaking, but Khazarian; there lies the epicenter of the Zionist Khazarian conspiracy.

 

Naive commentators, who express doubts about the veracity of the Greater Israel agenda, ask how Israel with its present, limited population can occupy vast lands of Syria, Iraq, Jordan, NW Saudi Arabia, and Egypt that are today inhabited by more than 100 million people!

 

Those commentators don’t know that a second ‘aliyah’ can take place (like that of the year 1945-1948) and 15-20 million ‘hidden’ ‘Jews’ (in reality: Khazarians presently impersonating Russians) can move to live in the Saudi Red Sea coast north of Jeddah, in the Egyptian Red Sea coast, in Sinai and in the Syrian desert. To support this enormous movement, the vast know-how currently acquired in the Zionist Emirates (UAE) will be transferred to the said territories in order to turn the desert into a green land.

 

As per the terms of the Jesuit-Zionist alliance, the Catholic Church can transfer the Holy See to Jerusalem, if (or when) Rome, Italy and Europe collapse in anarchy, Euro-Islamist wars (I don’t call them civil wars, because Islamist immigrants are alien elements in Europe), and total chaos. This perspective is viewed as inevitable by the Jesuits – and actually by all. And by evidently contributing to Europe’s decomposition, the Jesuits only demonstrate their solidarity with the Zionists, whom they surely cheat superbly as regards the final stages of the Jesuit agenda.

 

So, the plan to unite all churches has a global appeal, whereas local level socio-economic-political-cultural-spiritual power across Europe seems to be of little interest for the Jesuits. This is not strange:

 

first, their main focus is elsewhere, and

 

second, the Jesuits know that, after Europe’s descent to disorder and chaos, the power that will rise will be Freemasonic or if you prefer Nordic-Germanic, Gnostic, Hermetic, Wagnerian, Arian (the early Christian heresy) or ‘pagan’.

 

Use whatever word you want, but it will be an anti-Catholic, anti-Orthodox, anti-Jesuit Christianity with references to Merovingian bloodline and other extra-Christian literature.

 

VI. The Rise of the New Roman (European) Empire

 

For this purpose, Freemasons need to ensure:

 

1. A low degree destruction in the Middle East, which will also involve the following:

– preservation of Iran,

– creation of ‘Kurdistan’ on only Iraqi, Syrian and Turkish territories,

– formation of a Sunni central Iraqi state,

– emergence of a Shia state in South Iraq and the NE confines of Saudi Arabia (Dammam), and

– expansion of Jordan across NW quarter of Saudi Arabia

 

2. a. the total destruction of all democratic concepts and ideas in Europe, the formation of military groups that, after the fight against and the elimination of the Islamists, will rise to absolute power and impose a Freemasonic, pseudo-Christian, European Imperial state that will look closer to Mithraic Iranian Arsacid Empire, to Gnostic-Hermetic Christianity, and to Hyperborean cults and traditions.

 

2. b. During the forthcoming chaos across Europe, the Freemasons will spearhead the destruction of Rome and the conversion of most of the Christian churches in Western, Central and Northern Europe into pseudo-Christian Freemasonic temples. So, at that stage, the tactical interests of the Freemasons and the Zionists will converge again.

 

Another factor related to the destruction of Rome, which can also explain why the Jesuits seem indifferent to this forthcoming event, is the perplex phenomenon of the Fatima apocalyptic visions (six apparitions from 13th May to 13th October 1917) and the associated Miracle of Sun. In spite of the terrible measures taken to prevent the diffusion of the truth and despite the enormous volumes of lies spread on this subject by the official Catholic Church in order to confuse and disorient every concerned explorer, many came to know that the Fatima apocalyptic visions do actually concern the end of the Catholic Church as we have known it until now.

 

So, I conclude that the Jesuits realized (particularly after the end of WW II) that the overall sociopolitical and cultural developments across Europe would make Traditional Catholic and Protestant Christianity irrevocably unsustainable in Rome, Italy & Europe, and they therefore shaped their End Times plans accordingly.

 

3. the decadence of Russia (options of ‘color revolution’ or other type of turmoil are under discussion, but not the ‘contained’ nuclear war option) and the implosion of the US (following economic collapse rather than natural disaster, although Freemasons too seem to believe that some type of East Coast natural disaster is inevitable). Following the collapse of central authority (or the submersion of Washington D.C. or the destruction caused by the limited and ‘contained’ nuclear war), the different parts of the elite will live in underground cities or secluded territories. Then, vast lands of today’s American territory will plunge in chaos and they will be ruled by local thugs and gangsters. However, some form of republican state with public order and discipline will emerge in the mountainous parts of the American Middle West.

 

The New Roman-European Empire will be a totalitarian state compared to which Hitler’s Germany would look like a liberal-anarchical spot. To its citizens, it will be a very happy realm, because practically speaking the outright majority of the indigenous European population, previously outraged because of the Islamists’ unprecedented barbarism, will support the anti-Islamist and anti-Jewish resistance, struggle, and victory of the brave European fighters.

 

The end result will be that they will get rid of all troubles, because the great warriors will exterminate all Islamists, Jews (Sephardic or Ashkenazi Khazarians), leftists, homosexuals, liberal-socialists, and other dissident elements. To imagine how terrible the next European war will be, one must consider approximately 50 million people dead from the borders of Russia to the Atlantic in a period of 3-4 years; some cities will surely look worse than Syria’s Aleppo.

 

However, this shocking situation will bring forth splendid results: materialism, consumerism, hedonism and pacifism will have disappeared – along with humanism. The era that started with Copernicus will have ended in Europe. The imperial rise will be very fast, because spiritual powers, techniques, and endeavors will be pursued, and demonic hierarchies will highly contribute to the restoration of the Anti-(Pseudo-)Christian order and authority. A new technology will appear that will be spiritual rather than material of nature. Europe will then believe in  forms of Mithraism, Gnostic Christianity, and Arianism that were thought to have been irreversibly uprooted back in the 4th century.

 

The rise of the European Empire will be simultaneous with the fall of Greater Israel and the final disarray of the Muslim World from Mauritania to India. With America’s, Russia’s, India’s, and Israel’s power decreasing, the purified European Empire will be a meteoric phenomenon and the leader of the struggle against the Islamist immigrants and the erratic Jews will be catapulted to absolute power. This person will be very different from the common, materialistic leaders and fake Messiahs of the Zionists and the Muslims.

 

Europe’s power will spread across Africa, Latin America, and large parts of Asia. Islam will be abolished, and for some time it will look as if it totally disappeared. Israel will disintegrate, and a peace will be imposed among local populations of different backgrounds as the only means to survive; the real Third Temple will be built then, because the earlier built Zionist edifice will be a fake replica. The Third Temple will be indeed Satan’s temple par excellence. The European Emperor will first be called divine (in imitation of Ancient Roman titulary) and then worshipped as god. He will be the Final False Christ, the ‘Antichrist’.

 

This will be an era of major natural disasters and several parts of the Earth will disappear following catastrophic earthquakes, enormous tsunamis, and calamitous sidereal phenomena. It will also be a time a nefarious diseases rapidly spread across vast territories and with many hundreds of millions of dead (“He will destroy many in a time of peace”). The Zionists will have almost disappeared, but this will not be the same for the Jesuits.

 

It goes without saying that Official Christianity either Roman Catholic or Eastern Roman Orthodox will be persecuted and uprooted as Satanic heresy across the European Empire.

999.jpg

VII. Jesuit Christianity and its Survival at the times of the European Empire

 

Where will the main center of the Jesuits be located at those days? In the countries toward which their focus has already shifted, but the world’s media -deliberately or due to oversight- ignore this remarkable change.

 

In fact, the brief and straight answer to the original question (as expressed in the second paragraph of this article) is this:

After the end of WW II, the Jesuits have concluded that

a. Europe is definitely rotten

b. Christianity in Europe is irreversibly dead

c. their power in Europe will never ever rise again

d. Europe will be controlled either by Freemasons or Zionists to its end

e. it makes therefore no sense to Jesuits to oppose the Zionist agenda in Europe, since even if they achieve to avert it, their power will not increase, and at the end the Anti-Christian Freemasons will prevail.

f. at the present moment, because of the aforementioned, and despite the Freemasonic interest in setting up an immense empire headquartered somewhere in Central-Northern Europe, it looks like all three major secret societies, Freemasonry, Societas Jesu, and the Zionist Khazarians, want to see the present European structure destroyed – each for different reasons.

 

(((This does not mean that their puppets – Freemason Holland, Zionist Sarkozy, Jesuit Fillon, Jesuits Anthony Blair and Theresa May, Freemasons Gordon Brown & David Cameron, Freemasons Francois Mitterrand, Helmut Kohl, and Jacques Chirac, Jesuit Angela Merkel, and others – want to truly and consciously destroy their homeland, as many people may imagine mistakenly. All the statesmen and politicians, who belong to today’s European political microcosm, believe that they contribute to the improvement of the socioeconomic conditions and to the elimination of the major problems. This is the result a. of the nature of our world, b. of the overwhelming deception that applies across the board and at all levels, and c. of the function of the three secret and hierarchical societies to which all these persons belong. The initiation to another, higher degree always means partly rejection of earlier beliefs, assumptions and understandings; or to put it otherwise, these secret societies’ superior members always keep the lower members misinformed or uninformed.)))

 

g. consequently, the Jesuits – already before many decades – knew that they had to put all their stakes on one (or more) strong, ancient, coherent, yet politically deceived and disoriented nation that had not yet been Christened. You certainly understand immediately that I mean China.

 

Today, in South Korea, all Christian denominations total around 30-35% among the indigenous people. In Japan, a great part of folk Shinto lean to various branches of Christianity. The same occurs in Taiwan where many non-religious people turn to different Christian churches. More importantly, in China, Buddhists total 18%, Christians are around 5%, and the unaffiliated make more than half the population, with many converting to Christianity every day.

 

These countries are the main focus of the Jesuits; they expect a great return to religion and spirituality when an economic collapse will bring despair to the outright majority of the population in all these countries. When bloody conflicts and devastating wars, nightmarish diseases, ominous famines, and unique natural disasters will be hitting the rest of the world, China will rise as the Christian country par excellence.

 

That’s why the Freemasons try to compromise this perspective by deliberately contributing to the worsening of the relations between North Korea and South Korea, and to the degradation of the relations between China and the US, so that if there has to be a limited, ‘contained’ nuclear war, this takes place between China and the US, and not between Russia and the US. That’s why we hear rumors of wars coming from one or the other side of the Eurasiatic landmass.

 

VIII. The demise of the Anti-Christian Roman Empire

 

For this purpose, Jesuits need to ensure:  

1. the advance of the Zionist agenda in the Middle East

 2. the advance of the Zionist and the Freemasonic agendas in Europe

 3. the mutual regression of Russia and America

 4. the successful rise of the European Empire under the Antichrist; in the first part of his rule, they will not oppose / challenge him. They expect the Two Prophets to appear as soon as he has the Third Temple erected, and then they will start opposing him.

 

Jesuits know very well that it is their own task to prepare a Chinese army of 200 million soldiers and turn it against the European Emperor – Antichrist, when he will encircle China and East Asia from all parts. They expect that moment to come with the end of the Two Prophets’ ministry and Jesus’ Second Coming. But this is wrong and, although they play their game at the long-run and they are therefore superior to the rest, they will only cheat themselves. Their end will be even more spectacular.

 

Now, who Jesus will be, how he will first appear, how he will engulf his enemies into their own traps, who will stand by him, who will oppose -and how- the Antichrist, this is another, very vast, topic.

 

However, the idea of just a frontal battle between two persons is really childish and inconsistent with the Christian texts to say the least. By this, I don’t limit the topic to just few false Christs, the Antichrist, the False Prophet, the Two Prophets, and Jesus.

 

There will also be many other persons who will play a very important role. Already the Book of the Revelation (ch. 14) speaks of two different persons: the Lamb and the 144000 virgin soldiers (verses 1-5) and the End times King, someone “like a son of man, with a golden crown on his head”, who will eliminate the sinful and the evil (verses 14-19). Believing that the two persons are one is sheer distortion, and this confusion has been spread by many theologians related to all three aforementioned secret societies.

 

The number of important persons expected to appear at the End of Times is not limited in the aforementioned; in Matthew XII, 41-42, Jesus states that, on Judgment Day, Assyrians (“men of Nineveh“) will come back to engage in battle against “this generation(sheer reference to the evil, Maccabee-origin Pharisees whom he rejected).

 

Further on, Jesus mentions an entire southern (Queen of South) nation that will emerge at the same time to also oppose and fight against “this generation”. This nations’ magistrates will also be key persons of the End times.

 

That is to say, most of today interpreters, irrespective of denomination or religion, try to adjust their holy texts to their desires and wishes, be they theological or political, and in the process they strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.

 

Now, what the Kalergi plan is, why a Freemason envisioned it, what his intentions were, and in what he was managed and maneuvered without his choosing, this is a totally different topic basically spiritual of nature.

 

However, despite ‘his’ false claims, Richard Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi did not originate from the Eastern Roman nobility; neither the Cretan Kallergis family (of which he was an offspring) did. Many Greeks, who moved to Tsarist Russia in the late 18th and early 19th c., were impressed by, and envied, Russian nobility; so, when they returned to their Ottoman-occupied homeland, they brought with them the myth and the falsely risen claims of Eastern Roman Imperial nobility. Now, whether Richard Nikolaus knew that his family’s claims were fake and unsubstantiated or not, this is anyone’s guess. As a matter of fact, Kallergis family members had risen those claims for at least a century, before Richard Nikolaus was born.

 

 

—————————

Note

* Robert Reyvolt in Incendiary Radio w/ Robert Reyvolt – April 2, 2017 Hour 2 http://www.republicbroadcastingarchives.org/incendiary-radio-w-robert-reyvolt-april-2-2017-hour-2/

 

 

 

 

What Egypt needs now – Part II. An Existential Threat must be Thwarted

By Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

In an earlier article titled ‘What Egypt needs now – Part I, Sinai’, I suggested a series of measures that the Egyptian government must take immediately to make sure that civil order and concord will prevail in the area and nationwide. These measures are expected to thwart an existential threat against Egypt’s national integrity. The existing threat is very real and the dangers tremendous. In the present article, I will reveal covert insinuations made by a key Israeli minister, proceeding through textual analysis. These hints do not augur well for Egypt’s territorial integrity and must therefore be taken very seriously.

When Supreme Forces are pushing to Change Borders….

Bernard Lewis map

The first reactions of the Egyptian government seem good, but very limited, short-termed, and rather atrophic. Egypt must be out of the process of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations; this is true and correct for all intents and purposes. One can even say that there was no need for such carnage so that finally an Egyptian government understands that the country’s position is in Africa and not in Asia, and that any sort of involvement in Palestinian, Levantine or Asiatic troubles does not bode well for Egypt’s interests, perspectives and future.

Establishing a buffer zone is certainly a good measure, but it will bring only minimal results; the last bomb explosion was a false flag attack, and the criminal Zionist state is the only to be held responsible for this. Any sound mind can assess this reality immediately. As irrevocable conclusion, it is even corroborated by the texts and the articles of the Zionist press – if they are attentively read and scrupulously interpreted.

For the Egyptian government, accusing Hamas for the tragic incident has only one useful dimension, namely to deceive the Israelis by pretending that the Egyptian government does not believe that the responsible was ultimately the Zionist state. This dimension would certainly make sense.

However, for any Egyptian authority to truly believe that it was carried out by a Hamas unit in cooperation with local elements is tantamount to suicide. The reason for this is the fact that it was not Hamas, but Israel, and this will be proved correct, because the measures taken, if they are not accompanied by must greater and more systematic measures (like those suggested in my previous article) will fail to prevent similar incidents in the future.

Worse, if the measures I suggested in my earlier article (https://megalommatis.wordpress.com/2014/10/26/what-egypt-needs-now-part-i-sinai/) are not taken as soon as possible, Israel will take the destabilizing game deep inside Egypt, and similar tragic incidents will be reproduced in the greater Cairo area and in Upper Egypt. The reason for this is very simple; Israel has already established a highly sophisticated network of agents across the country (without most of them even knowing that they are working for the Zionist state) and, in addition, has stored in many locations across the Sinai Peninsula material that is necessary for the false flag attacks that the Mossad intends to carry out across Egypt.

It takes only a deep understanding of the Language of Falsehood (which is as real as English, Arabic, Russian and any other linguistic entity) in order to interpret correctly the Zionist ministers’, generals’, academics’ and journalists’ speeches and thus understand that Egypt is directed targeted now.

A brilliant example is offered by the filthy pig Moshe Ya’alon – who should be mercilessly lynched and literarily dismembered alive for scores of Crimes against the Mankind. The Israeli minister of Military Affairs said in a recent interview with the US-based National Public Radio (NPR) that the current borders of many Middle Eastern countries are bound to change in the future as a result of recent developments in the region.

He then went on offering his paranoid logic about the development and specifying the following: “Libya was a new creation, a Western creation as a result of World War I. Syria, Iraq, the same — artificial nation-states — and what we see now is a collapse of this Western idea,” he stated. Feeling the need to best cover his intentions, he also added the following: “We have to distinguish between countries like Egypt, with their history. Egypt will stay Egypt”.

For someone so well prepared to be the top gangster of the criminal Zionist entity (the Fake State of Israel), i.e. the minister of Military Affairs, Modern Political History is a perfectly well studied subject, and to him all the events are known in foremost accuracy.

On this occasion, a shrewd commentator expressed a great part of irony as regards Moshe Ya’alon’s interview, epitomizing the truth as per below:
“The minister did not say whether the borders of Israel, also drawn by Western powers after World War I, would change or not ” (http://www.veteranstoday.com/2014/10/24/middle-east-borders-bound-to-change-israel-minister/).

Moshe Ya’alon (born Smilansky – of Ukrainian father) fought as a reservist in the Yom Kippur war (1973) and “on October 15, 1973, his unit became the first IDF unit to cross the Suez Canal into Egypt. He continued fighting as part of the Israeli drive into the Egyptian mainland, and participated in the encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moshe_Ya%27alon).

And this is Neo-Nazi gangster Ya’alon’s latest racist measure and policy:
http://www.darkgovernment.com/news/segregated-bussing-plan-for-palestinians-and-jews/

What did the Smilansky Ashkenazi Khazarian pig really say in his interview?

First, what are the ‘recent developments’ due to which borders will change across the region as per Ya’alon words? One might suggest that he refers to what happens currently in Iraq and Syria with the emergence of the Fake Caliphate. But no, this is wrong. The inner structure of his thought makes it clear that he includes Libya into this subject (‘the recent developments’); so we can safely claim that to him ‘recent developments’ is a code term for what is rather called across the global mass media as ‘Arab Spring’. So, we conclude that, when he says that ‘the recent developments’ will bring about ‘changes of borders’, Moshe Ya’alon includes Egypt, since the country was deeply affected by the Arab Spring covert operations.

But the gangster minister said much more in his interview, fully demonstrating that he views the country of the Nile as a candidate for the forthcoming border changes; in any case, ‘many’ countries are subject to this perspective, according to Ya’alon’s words.

Allusions are highly revered literary schemes in the Language of Falsehood that Zionists and Freemasons speak without the rest being able to decipher their covert messages and hints. Do you have a doubt that Moshe Ya’alon, except from being a Zionist, is also a Freemason? The picture published in the aforementioned entry of the Wikipedia (which certainly has his approval and definitely incorporates his recommendations) shows him with his Canadian and English counterparts, Rob Nicholson and Chuck Hagel, in a typically Freemasonic gesture of shaking hands (picture retrieved as of today).

Yaalon Nicholson Hagel

What is the allusion embedded in Ya’alon aforementioned interview?

He said: “Libya was a new creation, a Western creation as a result of World War I”. This is of course wrong! Totally wrong! Libya was detached from the Ottoman Empire by Italy during their 1911 war, which occurred 3 years before WW I started.

Now, if you believe that Moshe Ya’alon simply made a mistake or did not know what he was talking about, you are an idiot, and you should immediately stop reading the present text, because it will be worthless to you.

So, Libya was not ‘a Western creation as a result of World War I’.

This means that when Ya’alon continued saying ‘Syria, Iraq, the same — artificial nation-states — and …’, he already knew very well that Syria and Iraq were not detached from the Ottoman Empire in the ‘same’ way as Libya. Why did he make then this mistake?

A first approach may be for any interpreter and analyst to think that the Israeli minister wanted to insinuate that Libya’s borders will change pretty much like those of Syria and Iraq, which have already de facto changed due to the emergence of the Fake Caliphate.

But if this were his intention, Ya’alon would stop there. As he did not, and went on involving other countries as well, we can be sure that Libya was not the point he wanted to make.

So, in fact, establishing a wrong parallel between Libya and Syria-Iraq was not a proper mistake for Ya’alon, but it served him as an allusion.

– To what did Libya serve him as an allusion?

– Evidently to what Ya’alon would never say explicitly.

– How can we identify the object of his allusion?

– By searching for further elements in his interview namely countries that are possible candidates for border change; in this regard, Syria and Iraq are automatically excluded, because the change has already occurred in their cases.

– What further element is left in Ya’alon’s interview?

– Egypt.

However, in his interview, Ya’alon makes about Egypt an interesting juxtaposition; he says: ‘we have to distinguish between countries like Egypt, with their history. Egypt will stay Egypt’.

This appears to be in contrast with what was previously said about Syria, Iraq and Libya, namely that
1. they are ‘artificial nation-states’, and
2. in their case we see now ‘a collapse of this Western idea’.

The top rule of the Falsehood Language is ‘never to say the truth in public’; the second rule is the same said reversely, namely ‘to always say a lie in public’.

The fact that what Ya’alon says about Egypt in his interview is a lie we can understand through close examination of his words that reveal plenty of inconsistencies and inaccuracies.

What are “countries like Egypt, with their history”?

If this was said comparatively to Libya only, it would perhaps draw some importance. Libya was never the heartland of huge empires, important kingdoms or expanding caliphates. However, when countries like Syria and Iraq are involved in the discourse, the statement becomes meaningless and worthless, futile, erroneous, and therefore suspicious. Syria and Iraq have a greater historical past than Egypt.

A brief historical comparison involves the following:
1- the earlier beginning of civilization and writing in Mesopotamia – Sumer (around 300 years before Egypt),

2- the greater political – military expansion and cultural radiation of Mesopotamia – Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia (covering more than two millennia),

3- the equal importance of both lands at the times of the Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires (Alexander’s Epigones),

4- the equal importance of the two respective theological schools (Antioch in Roman Syrian and Alexandria in Roman Egypt) within Christianity, and last,

5- the far greater role for Syria and Iraq within the context of Islamic History (Damascus and Baghdad were far more influential than Cairo in any aspect).

Finally, both territories (Syria – Iraq & Egypt) became part of the Ottoman Empire at the same time (early 16th c.) and were detached in the same manner (colonial, Anglo-French detachment).

We can therefore conclude that this is totally false, and when said by a top Israeli military, it consists only in a useful lie.

The same concerns for the term used for Syria, Iraq and Libya, namely ‘a new creation’ and ‘artificial nation-states’. In fact, Libya and Egypt were fabricated in exactly the same manner: colonial interference and detachment from the Islamic Caliphate – Ottoman Empire whereto both lands belonged.

In fact, if there is a contrast among the four countries mentioned by the Israeli minister, i.e. Libya, Egypt, Syria and Iraq, we have on one side Egypt and Libya (detached during direct foreign, colonial interference / pretty much like Algeria, Tunisia, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Morocco, Aden, Oman, Emirates) and on the other side Syria and Iraq (invaded and occupied during WW I as consequence of the fact that the Ottoman Empire and England were members of opposite alliances / pretty much like Lebanon, Palestine, ‘Jordan’, Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait and Qatar).

If Libya is ‘a new creation’ (1911), so is Egypt (1798) too.

If Libya, Syria, and Iraq are ‘artificial nation-states’, so is Egypt too.

One may eventually hypothesize that the Israeli minister referred to the different ethnic-religious groups attested in the case of Syria and Iraq (Sunni, Shia, ‘Kurds’, Turkmen, Aramaeans, Yazidis and others). However, this is not attested in Libya whereby homogeneity is greater (there are only Berber-speaking and Arabic-speaking Libyans), and yet the Israeli minister categorized Libya with Syria and Iraq.

One understands how intriguing the Israeli minister can become, if one takes into consideration that ethnic-religious groups exist in Egypt as well, namely Berbers in the West, Bedouins in the Sinai (systemically called ‘Arabs’ by the Zionist state – and this is both false and fallacious), Nubians and Beja in the South, and in addition, Christians (erroneously called Copts – in fact, all Egyptians are Copts), Sunni and Shia Muslims.

So, if so many elements of Minister Ya’alon’s interview are false, what did he want to say?

The answer is simple.

It is all about an allusion that he wanted to make.

First, he made it clear that the Zionist state and the forces that support it want a definite change of borders in the Middle East. This does not concern Syria and Iraq anymore, because there border change has already occurred. In addition, Minister Ya’alon did not limit his discourse to only that area where he could eventually specify details (about ‘Kurdistan’, etc.) without however referring to other countries.

Second, he used Libya as an allusion to many aspects that characterize Egypt in the way the Zionist state views the country of the Nile (: new creation, Western creation, artificial nation-state, collapse of the underlying Western idea).

Third, he denied the truth that is hidden in the backside of his mind, by excluding Egypt from the picture. In fact, no one asked Minister Ya’alon to exclude Egypt from the picture. He could have just avoided any mention. He could have mentioned Yemen, Arabia or other countries instead, but in this case he would have not conveyed the message he wanted to convey to his Freemasonic and Zionist audiences across the Earth.

This automatically suggests that, if we want to understand him clearly, we have to conclude that he basically referred to Egypt as the next target for border change.

However, it would be a mistake to imagine that the rogue gangster who impersonates Israel’s Minister of Military Affairs is the only person to use this terminology and these figures of speech in order to convey similar messages. The Israeli is press and mass media in general are full of examples of similar insinuations and hints – on daily basis.

For their criminal interests and genocidal plans, it is only normal that they do their best to confuse the picture and mislead the Egyptian authorities. The Sinai Peninsula has become an urgent affair for the Zionist state. This is at least what the recent articles of professional liars and forgers like Elhanan Miller and Avi Issacharoff reconfirm (http://www.timesofisrael.com/egypt-suspends-hamas-israel-talks-following-sinai-attack/?utm_source=The+Times+of+Israel+Daily+Edition&utm_campaign=6b82096a7c-2014_10_26&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_adb46cec92-6b82096a7c-54783545 and http://www.timesofisrael.com/the-woes-of-an-egyptian-churchill/?utm_source=The+Times+of+Israel+Daily+Edition&utm_campaign=6b82096a7c-2014_10_26&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_adb46cec92-6b82096a7c-54783545).

It is therefore high time for the Egyptian administration to take all measures needed in order to totally block the Zionist infiltrators and agents out of the Sinai, and thus preserve the country’s territorial integrity.

What Egypt needs now – Part I, Sinai

By Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

With the bomb explosion that killed more than 30 soldiers and triggered the proclamation of a 3-month state of emergency across North Sinai Governorate, came to an end all the dreams that the newly elected president El Sissi would assuredly put Egypt back on the correct path and quickly reinstall order as it had been before the thunderous Friday 28 January 2011, the day that shook former president Mubarak’s regime from its foundations.

What most people fail to notice is the timing of the tragic event; occurred after the collapse of Sanaa, the Yemenite capital, to the Houthi rebels of Yemen’s extreme North, the bomb explosion took place after more than a month of fighting at Kobani (Ayn al Arab) in North Syria, and while chaotic strife has been attested across the region from Libya to Gaza to South Sudan. The news in detailed and accurate form can be found here: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/world/2014-10/25/c_127139288.htm
and http://www.rt.com/search/everywhere/term/egypt/

It was therefore only normal for Juan Cole to wonder whether Egypt’s Sinai is going the way of Syria (http://www.juancole.com/2014/10/egypts-troops-militants.html).

sinai

Map included in Juan Cole’s article

Why Israel needs to detach the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt

The aforementioned is enough for any objective observer to realize that the next stage for destabilization in the region will take place in Egypt. This is at least what events of such scale suggest. It can really become an inferno quite soon, if one takes into consideration the explosive situation at the ground and the existing parallel plans providing for chaos, fratricidal conflicts, and ultimate dismemberment of the country. These plans are very real and very serious; they have little to do with the globally evident advocates of the decomposed but not defunct Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan al Muslimeen). The real composers and promoters of the anti-Egyptian schemes are not as ostensible as Qatar and Turkey are, and to deceive many, they usually appear as rather recommending if not applauding Egypt’s stance in regional affairs.

Destabilization in the Sinai Peninsula is certainly part of Israel’s medium term targets; the racist governments of the Zionist state are currently engaged in a dramatic search for a sizeable hinterland. The reason is simple; their illegal entity stands on a very small piece of land that forces them not to make concessions in order to achieve peace with those among the Palestinians who are ready for a final ‘peace for land’ deal. In this, the Zionists are ‘technically’ right; a state as small and narrow as Israel was within its 1967 borders is really indefensible in the 2010s.

But the anxious character of Zionist journalists like Matt Lee and Joshua Davidovich when writing about the currently troublesome US-Israeli relationship (http://www.timesofisrael.com/us-officials-israel-defense-chief-denied-meetings/?utm_source=The+Times+of+Israel+Daily+Edition&utm_campaign=5f63cc2285-2014_10_25&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_adb46cec92-5f63cc2285-54783545 & http://www.timesofisrael.com/us-reportedly-denies-yaalon-request-to-meet-with-kerry-biden/?utm_source=The+Times+of+Israel+Daily+Edition&utm_campaign=5f63cc2285-2014_10_25&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_adb46cec92-5f63cc2285-54783545) reveals that the Zionist state authorities feel clearly that they should not rely exclusively of US support for their future plans. The recent visit if Israel’s Minister of Defense in the US was an opportunity for the American administration to humiliate a cumbersome ally which proves to be otherwise useless for the changes that the US administration intends to impose on the wider region.

To the rapacious Zionist authorities, the Sinai Peninsula – three times the size of Israel – offers a wonderful opportunity for retreat, involving extensive transfer of populations, extensive capabilities for successive defense lines, and lengthy coastal zones already equipped with a really great tourism infrastructure. More importantly, the local population does not exceed 400000 people (almost one fifth – 1/5 – of the population of Gaza strip) with no major urban centers except Al Arish that totals more than 25% of the entire peninsula’s population.

As it is expected that many people will emigrate to Egypt, if Sinai is declared independent or autonomous under a vague Bedouin ‘political control’ (which would be a euphemism for the Israeli protectorate), it will be very easy for the Zionist military and security forces to implement an undisputed control in the new Eldorado of Zionism. Only then, the Zionist political class will show ‘magnanimous’ enough to concede to the Palestinian Authority all the territories occupied in the 1967 war, with some specific arrangements to be made for the status of Jerusalem (international city and common capital of the three Abrahamic faiths).

The Zionist state’s commitment to the ‘Sinai for Israel’ scenario however contravenes certain American plans for the wider region, and this generated the currently escalating US-Israeli diplomatic row. America wants to force Palestinians and Israelis to sign a final agreement involving land concessions; Israel cannot accept this before a retreat possibility becomes a reality; this produces further instability in the Sinai because the only means chosen by Israel is simulation; and this increases the instability in the peninsula where US operatives already implement divergent plans.

The time schedule is therefore tight, because the Zionist state needs to have results in the Sinai before the obstinate Israeli rejection of US pressure toward a final ‘land for peace’ agreement with the Palestinian Authority damages the US-Israeli relationship irreparably.

The annexation of Sinai by Israel will be a very easily done job because the Zionist populations have learned how to be new settlers here and there, can afford cold winter, mountainous environment, and harsh conditions of life for a certain period of time, whereas they can rely on an inexorable financial backing that dwarfs all the dire needs that may be ensuing from a massive population transfer in otherwise inaccessible regions. In other words, Israeli cities on the rocky mountains of the Sinai would be a rather cost-efficient expansion.

Can Egypt oppose Israel’s plans in the Sinai Peninsula?

To this hypothetical question there can be only one answer. In fact, theoretically, every threat can be timely averted if timely assessed. At this very moment, it is not clear whether the rulers of Egypt clearly understand that in the Sinai Peninsula the major threat comes from Israel, and not from America, Europe or the … Islamists. The latter are mere agents of the secret services of some Western countries; by themselves they do not constitute a decision making center – pretty much like Al Qaeda or ISIS/ISIL, the fake caliphate.

In fact, the timing and the extent of the recent explosion clearly indicate that it cannot be America. At present, the US do not harbor destabilization plans for Egypt’s northeast where the Sinai Peninsula lies; the US would rather prefer security, calm and peace to prevail in that specific region, because these are prerequisites for Egypt to keep the Gaza border open, and this is exactly what the US wants in order to revitalize / reequip / reinforce (not directly but via proxies) Hamas, a valuable tool for US pressure over Israel. But now, Egypt closed the Gaza border, which is exactly what Israel needs.

The relatively recent sort of Zionist literature as per which Israel’s real allies under the current circumstances are Egypt and Saudi Arabia (and not the US and Europe) represents a tool for the Zionist propaganda, and it is quite dangerous for Egypt, if the confusion is spread and the deception is believed.

The worst mistake for the current Egyptian government would be to continue its relationship with Israel, as if nothing happened. In fact, the borders with Israel must close for security reasons. No Israeli tourist must be accepted in Egypt.

The myth of the Israeli tourist in Egypt, particularly in Egypt’s Red Sea Riviera from Dahab to Qusseir, lasted too long and harmed the country too much in order to be still believed. There were never Israeli tourists in Egypt; there were Israeli secret services agents impersonating the tourists and acting accordingly under their inconspicuous apparel.

Imposing the state of emergency in North Sinai, closing the Gaza border, shutting the Israel border down, and canceling the arrival of all Israeli tourists are only preliminary measures.

The Egyptian government must soon take and rapidly implement two sets of measures, short term (up to 3-4 months) and medium term (5 months to 2 years)

Short term measures that Egypt must take in Sinai over the next 3-4 months

1- An increased military presence, disguised as local police or national security and gendarmerie, must put all parts of the Sinai Peninsula, inhabited and uninhabited, frequented and non-frequented, mountainous or not, accessible and inaccessible, under complete 24×7 controls and permanent patrolling. The force needed for this is at least equivalent to 500000 soldiers, and Egypt should be partly mobilized. (7 soldiers per km2 is a minimal prerequisite in this regard)

2- To better implement point 1 policy, thousands of military outposts will have to be erected and put into effect. They will have to be disguised as police outposts to allow the country to be in conformity with international treaties. The entire Sinai Peninsula will have thus to be turned to a vast military camp.

3- All homes, residences and buildings must be searched extensively, meticulously, unexpectedly and repeatedly, vast repertories must be made, all movements of individuals and all personal contacts monitored and registered, whereas all travels to and out of the area must be blocked for all.

4- Through use of all types of methods and technologies combined, all parts of the Sinai territory must be searched scrupulously and all possible underground depots and stores of arms and ammunition discovered. It is to be anticipated that huge caches of arms will be discovered in the process because the pernicious infiltration started many years ago.

5- The Egyptian navy will have to effectuate a maritime blockade of the Sinai Peninsula alongside both, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, coasts. Tourist movements from Hurghada to Sharm el Sheikh will have to be submitted to border-level baggage control, and the same measure will have to apply in all domestic and international flights for all passengers whatsoever. Fishing boats will have to be checked on daily basis.

6- A second ‘border’ line must be delineated and all tourist sites across Sinai’s western and eastern coasts (linked only through Suez to the rest of the country) must be totally cut off from the rest of the peninsula, all roads patrolled, individual tourism banned, and any movement between the two zones strictly prohibited. With the exception of St. Catherine’s monastery all other sightseeing destinations in the Sinai inland must be canceled. Only convoy movements must be allowed across the roads leading to St. Catherine’s monastery.

7- The Egyptian state authorities must have the absolute conviction that several thousands of Egyptian citizens originating from the Sinai Peninsula have been working for years as different level agents of the Zionist state; otherwise inevitably, Egypt will lose the battle of the Sinai and the country’s national integrity will be subsequently affected. This makes the following measure unavoidable. With the exception of the tourist resorts alongside the coasts and St. Catherine’s monastery, Internet connection and mobile communication must be suspended for time indefinite. This should apply to Rafah, Al Arish, and all other urban centers, hamlets, and locations.

8- With the exception of the tourist resorts alongside the coasts and St. Catherine’s monastery, no foreigner under any circumstances or pretexts whatsoever should be allowed to move across Sinai, involving diplomats, NGOS, representatives of international bodies, etc.

9- The Egyptian state authorities must have the absolute conviction that it is not only the Palestinians who are specializing in the construction of tunnel; the Zionist government has commissioned different agencies that offer job positions to unspecialized ‘Jewish’ labor from Russia and other countries, and they have also been working secretly for quite a long period. There are several Israeli tunnels crossing the Egyptian Sinai borders in greater depth than that of the Palestinian underground passages; the Israeli tunnels reach at distances of dozens of kilometers inside the Egyptian territory in the Sinai. Through these passageways, weaponry has been systematically smuggled into Egypt and laboriously stored in various caches in the desert and the mountains, Bedouins working as Mossad agents have moved into Israel for special training and then returned ‘home’, and Israeli forces specializing in guerilla and false flag attacks have repeatedly crossed the borders to perform their criminal acts and then run back to Israel and thus disappear.

To address this situation and make sure that nothing can be smuggled any more into their targeted country, the Egyptian authorities must undertake another project of enormous dimensions immediately. The army will only supervise the project, but a civil authority must be commissioned in this regard, and a great number of unspecialized jobless Egyptians (a hundred thousand as per modest estimates) will have to be ‘hired’ on temporary basis and with minimum salary (corvée) to form the utility teams that will materialize the enormous project.

Sinai peninsula

From Rafah to Ayn al Qusaymah to Al Kuntillah and thence to Taba, a huge trench must be dug with a length of more than 300 kilometers; with an initial width of 20 to 30 meters, the trench (or canal) should be at least 100 m deep to have the chance to reach/surpass the level of the Israeli underground passageways and make them useless. Work must start in many different points at the same time and the different utility teams that will be working in parallel will have to advance in two opposite directions in order to reach the points where other digging teams will have advanced to.

Meanwhile, the hinterland behind the trench should be systematically patrolled during the works as per above point 1.

Initially undertaken for security measures, and permanently maintained ever since, this project could later be upheld and the utility teams be further employed after the completion of the works to eventually turn the project to a second Suez Canal, linking Rafah to Taba.

The above short term measures must be taken immediately and carried out within a 3-4 month period with the only exception made for point 8 that will last longer. With the completion of the implementation of the above measures, national security and civil order will prevail, and this will involve the gradual alleviation or even termination of some of the aforementioned measures.

Then, the path will open for the roll-out of the medium term measures that will have meanwhile to be completed at the study level.

Medium term measures that Egypt must take in Sinai over the next 3-4 years

The Sinai Peninsula was never inhabited by settled populations in significant numbers throughout its entire millennia long history; to the Ancient Egyptians, it was known as Biau, i.e. the land of mines, and there were important temples, like Serabit al Khadim. Early writing systems have also been attested in parts of the peninsula; the vestiges of Proto-Sinaitic writing fully demonstrate that it was a derivative of the Egyptian Hieratic writing, used however not for the Ancient Egyptian language, but for the local Canaanite language that was spoken among the few inhabitants. Modern scholarship successfully identified significant historical mines across the peninsula, but this does not change in anything the reality that there has never been any major city, harbor, port of call, entrepot, market place, trading center or caravan stopover in Sinai. Its name derived from that of the Ancient Assyrian Babylonian god Sin, who symbolized the moon, epitomized the peninsula’s rather inhospitable character.

Lepsius Serabit ca 1840

serabit 2

Serabit Hathor T

SERABIT

Drawing of Serabit al Khadim antiquities, made by the Prussian archaeological expedition under R. Lepsius (1840) and several snapshots from the archaeological site

Scarcity of population, borderline area, mountainous environment, semiarid zones, and the heavy burden of history are dimensions of the Sinai Peninsula identity that have impacted modern Egyptian attitude toward the triangular geographic oddity of Sinai.

Now, to save its targeted province, Egypt is called to change History.

Viewing the Egyptian governmental policies retrospectively, one has to admit that the successive Mubarak administrations must be credited for having slightly modified the Egyptian attitude toward Sinai, and this was expressed through the rise of the tourism industry. Viewed from the exclusive standpoint of money income, this policy was not bad, but if one takes into consideration the existing geopolitical challenges, one has to conclude that Mubarak administrations’ view of the Sinai was narrow-minded, shriveled, and therefore dangerous.

Finally, Mubarak administrations’ laissez faire ended up in the explosive situation that we have got in our hands today.

To counterbalance the existing challenges and hedge the imminent dangers in Sinai, Egypt needs only a visionary’s look over the country’s problems. In fact, Sinai, as it is now, offers an excellent opportunity to Egypt’s administrations to solve – to some extent – other serious problems of the Nile Valley and the Delta.

Today’s Egypt, even considered as deprived of enemies, threats and challenges, has very serious problems, and at the top of the list one finds the overpopulation of a small stretch of land, the Valley of Nile. With over 90 million people almost all condensed in the small narrow valley of the Nile and the Delta (much less than 10% of the country’s territory), Egypt faces one of the world’s most explosive demographics. This does not bode well for the future of any country.

The measure of a medium and long term success hinges only on changing the following, lethally perilous demographics assessment; with an estimated 75% of Egyptians being under 25 and with a meager 3% being over 65, the country’s population lives on a small part of the country’s territory (ca. 6%) whereby the density average is over 1540 persons per km2. This cannot last longer.

The gravity of the situation is revealed here:
http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/Egypt/Egypt.html;
http://www.systemdynamics.org/conferences/2013/proceed/papers/P1416.pdf
http://egypt.unfpa.org/english/Staticpage/54790f72-6e8b-4f77-99e2-4c5b78c20d5c/indicators.aspx
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Egypt;

The best defensive line that Egypt can draw across Sinai is the transformation of the peninsula into a remarkably inhabited province. New cities have to be built, semiarid territories have to become arable cultivated lands, and basically urban populations must be transferred from Cairo, the Delta, and Upper Egypt to Sinai. Factories must be transferred; universities must be relocated; the necessary transportation, habitation, and telecommunication infrastructure must be made available; new businesses, new manufactures, and systematic cattle management must be planned and launched in every single corner of the peninsula, and no less that 5-6 million people must be transferred from the aforementioned areas to the Sinai within a period of 3-4 years, following a 6-month planning session.

It has to be carefully planned and programmed with a perspective of population expansion up to 15-20 million, involving new cities, towns and villages in the coast lands, in the semiarid desert, and in the mountains. Furthermore, it has to be forcefully implemented, involving motivations and stimuli that will mark very differently the lives of the transferred populations, making of them the new elite of the country.

If there were today 6 million Egyptians living across Sinai, one can be sure that never ever would the Zionist state elaborate annexation plans and attempt to implement them. Massive population transfer to the Sinai is a medium-long term measure, which may irrevocably egyptianize the Egyptian territory before it is lost forever.

In a forthcoming article, I will examine what other measures the current Egyptian administration has to envisage for the country’s future in order to fully eliminate the grave problems that it inherited from earlier colonial and postcolonial, lethargic or unrealistic rulers of either the vice-royal or the republican times.

STUDY CAREFULLY

A map for the Egyptian administration to study closely (and the related texts: http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/kovach/091013). In this case, historical accuracy matters little; what is important to seize in this regard is that there are people (and lobbies, associations, secret organizations, etc. standing behind them) who utterly believe in this type of distortions and falsehood. These are the people who have the power and shape the real decisions that presidents and prime ministers only implement. Of course, statesmen and politicians will turn down the importance of such people and of their ideas. But if we examine things from distance and through the perspective of centuries (and not that of years or months), we will immediately realize that such plans have been worked out in the wider region, and that the local, pseudo-Islamic, and utterly silly religious authorities and the idiotic rulers, like Saddam Hussein, Qadhafi, Hafez and Bashar al Assad, Hassan II and Mohammed VI of Morocco, Bourguiba, Zin Al Abedin, Abdallah of Jordan, Buteflika, Abdallah of Saudi Arabia, Ali Abdallah, Hosni Mubarak, and Omar Al Bashir – and their services – failed to detect, let alone assess, evaluate and outmaneuver them.

The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo Nation

The Meroitic Ethiopian Origins of the Modern Oromo Nation

By Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

First published in: http://www.americanchronicle.com/articl … leID=21760

Subsequently published in: Oromo Studies Association, 2005 Conference Proceedings, Washington D.C., 2005, 10p
Online mention: http://oromostudies.org/Proceedings/OSA.Proceeding.2005.pdf

The present text has been slightly edited.

This paper deals, among others, with the development of Meroitic studies, the Meroitic civilization, the destruction of the city of Meroe, the dispersal of the Meroitic people after the collapse of their state, the Christianization of the post Meroitic states in Ethiopia (i.e. Northern Sudan / it is to be reminded that the modern state of Abyssinia is fallaciously, illegally and criminally rebaptized ‘Ethioipia’), the migration of the remnants of the Meroitic people in the direction of the Blue Nile, and their possible relation of ancestry with the modern Cushitic language speaking Oromo nation. It must be stated clearly at the outset that the issue of Meroitic ancestry of the Oromo nation has not yet been considered, much less published in an academic journal or scholarly books. The paper was first presented in an academic conference organized by the Oromo Studies Association. Footnotes have been added in view of the aforementioned publication (see Pdf).

1. The Development of the Meroitic Studies, the History of Kush and Meroe, and the Efforts to Decipher the Meroitic Writing

Interest in what was Ethiopia for the Ancient Greeks and Romans, i.e. the Northern territory of present day Sudan from Khartoum to the Egyptian border *1, led to the gradual development of the modern discipline of the Humanities that long stood in the shadow of Egyptology: the Meroitic Studies.

Considerable advances had been made in academic research and knowledge as the result of the exploratory trips of the Prussian pioneering Egyptologist Richard Lepsius *2 (1842 – 1844) that bestowed upon modern scholarship the voluminous ‘Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien’ (Monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia), and as the direct consequence of the series of excavations undertaken by E. A. Wallis Budge *3 and John Garstang *4 at Meroe (modern Bagrawiyah) in the first years of the twentieth century, by Francis Llewellyn Griffith *5 at Kawa (ancient Gematon, near modern Dongola, 1929 – 1931), by Fritz Hintze *6 at Musawwarat es Sufra, by Jean Leclant *7 at Sulb (Soleb), Sadinga (Sedeinga), and Djebel Barkal (ancient Napata, modern Karima) in the 1950s and the 1960s, by D. Wildung *8 at Naqah, and by Charles Bonnet at Kerma. The pertinent explorations and contributions of scholars like A. J. Arkell *9, P. L. Shinnie *10, and Laszlo Torok *11 that cover a span of 80 years reconstituted a large part of the greatness and splendor of this four millennia long African civilization.

Yet, due to the lack of direct access to original sources and genuine understanding of the ancient history of Sudan, the legendary and historical Ethiopia of the Greeks and Romans, which corresponds to what was ‘Kush’ for the Hebrews (mentioned many times in the Bible) and ultimately ‘Kas’ for the ancient Egyptians *12 (mentioned in thousands of hieroglyphic, hieratic and demotic texts), we face a serious problem of terminology when it comes to Ancient Sudan’s earlier historical periods.

We are confined to such terms as Period (or Group) A (3100 – 2700 BCE), *13 Period B *14 (2700 – 2300 BCE that starts with Pharaoh Snefru’s expedition, *15 which marks indeed the beginning of the time-honored and multi-faceted relationship between Kemet-Egypt and Kush), and Period C *16 (2300 – 2100 BCE), for one millennium of Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopian or Kushitic) History. For the said period, thanks to Ancient Egyptian texts, we have a plethora of ethnic names and state names referring to populations living in North Sudan’s territory (notably Wawat, Irtet, Setjiu,Yam, Zetjau, and Medjay *17); but we fail to correctly establish to whom these names exactly refer as ethno-linguistic groups (Kushitic? Nilo-Saharan? Western Hamitic?).

Subsequent periods of Ancient Sudanese History are also denoted in conventional manner, as this is highlighted by the term Period of Kerma *18 (2100 – 1500 BCE); this period is named after the modern city and archeological site, 500 km in the south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border.

Slide7

What we know for sure is that, when the first Pharaohs of the New Empire invaded and colonized the entire area down to Kurgus *19 (more than 1000 km alongside the Nile, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border), they established two top Egyptian administrative positions, namely “Viceroy of Wawat” and “Viceroy of Kush/Kas”. Wawat is the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel or properly speaking, the area between the first and the second cataracts, whereas Kas is all the land that lies beyond. With the collapse of the Kerma culture, comes to end a first high-level culture and powerful state in the area of Kush.

Slide8

Slide9

We employ the term ‘Kushitic Period’ *20 to refer to the subsequent periods:

a) the Egyptian annexation (1500 – 950 BCE), which involved a permanent effort to egyptianize Kush that triggered in turn ceaseless Kushitic revolutions against the Pharaohs,

Slide12

b) the Kushitic independence (950 – 800 BCE), when a separate state was formed around Napata *21, present day Karima, 750 km south of the Sudanese – Egyptian border,

Slide11

c) the Kushitic expansion and involvement in Egypt (800 – 670 BCE, which corresponds mostly to the XXVth – ‘Ethiopian’ (meaning literally Sudanese) according to Manetho *22 – dynasty of Egypt, when the Theban clergy of Amun made an alliance with the Kushitic ‘Qore’, i.e. the Kings of Napata, who ruled Kush and Upper Egypt based on their two capitals, Napata and Thebes *23, (the alliance was directed against the pact that the Heliopolitan clergy of Ra had made with the Libyan princes who thus strengthened the separate state of Lower Egypt),

Slide14

d) the Kushitic expulsion from Egypt, following the three successive invasions of Egypt by Emperors Assarhaddon *24 (in 671 BCE) and Assurbanipal *25 (in 669 BCE and 666 BCE) of Assyria, who made an alliance with the Heliopolitan *26 priesthood and the Libyan princes against the Theban clergy and the Kushitic kings, and

Slide15

e) the subsequent Kushitic state’s decline – period during which took place the successive invasions led by Psamtik/Psammetichus II of Egypt *27 (in 591 BCE) and by the Achaemenid *28 Persian Shah Kambudjiyah / Cambyses *29 (in 525 BCE).

Slide16

Slide17

The entire Kushitic period is considered as terminated with the completion of the transfer of the capital city at a much safer (and more distant from Egypt) location far in the south, namely at Meroe, in the area of present day Bagrawiyah beyond the point whereby Atbarah river unites with the Greater Nile. This event occurred at the end of the reign of Qore (King) Nastasen *30 between 335 and 315 BCE.

Slide2

We call ‘Meroitic’ the entire period that covers almost 700 years beginning around 260 BCE with the reign of the successors of Nastasen, notably Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *31 (the most illustrious among the earliest ones and the first to be buried at Meroe / Bagrawiyah), and ending with the end of Meroe and the destruction of the Meroitic royal cities by the Axumite Abyssinian Negus Ezana *32 (ca. 370 CE). It is easily understood that the ‘Kushitic’ period antedates ‘Meroitic’ period, but both appellations are quite conventional.

The ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) entered into a period of cultural, intellectual, and scriptorial radiation and authenticity relatively late, around the third century BCE, which means that the development took place when Meroe replaced Napata as capital of the Kushites / Meroites. Before that moment, the ancient people of Kush (or Ethiopia) used Egyptian hieroglyphic writing for all their scriptorial purposes, be they administrative, economic, religious and/or monumental – royal. The introduction of the Meroitic alphabetic hieroglyphic writing spearheaded the development of a Meroitic cursive alphabetic scripture that was used for less magnificent purposes than palatial and sacred relief inscriptions. The first person to publish copies of Meroitic inscriptions (then unidentified) was the French architect Gau *33, who visited Northern Sudan as early as 1819. Quite unfortunately, almost two centuries after the discovery of the first Meroitic inscriptions, we are left in mysteries with regard to the greatest part of the contents of the epigraphic evidence collected in both scriptural systems.

The earliest dated Meroitic hieroglyphic inscriptions belong to the reign of the ruling queen Shanakdakheto *34 (about 177-155 BCE), but archaeologists believe that this scripture represents the later phase of a language spoken by Kushites / Meroites at least as far back as 750 BCE and possibly many centuries or even millennia before that (hinting therefore at a Kushitic / Ethiopian continuity from the earliest Kerma days at the end of the 3rd millennium BCE). The earliest examples of Meroitic cursive inscriptions, recently found by Charles Bonnet in Dukki Gel (REM 1377-78) *35, can also be dated in the early 2nd century BCE. The latest text is still probably the famous inscription from Kalabsha (Ancient Egyptian Talmis) mentioning King Kharamadoye (REM 0094) *36, which dates back to the beginning of the fifth century CE, although some funeral texts from Ballana *37 could be contemporary or even posterior.

Slide19

Despite the fact that F. L. Griffith identified the twenty three (23) Meroitic alphabetic writing signs already in 1909, not much progress has been made towards the ultimate decipherment of the Meroitic *38. Scarcity of epigraphic evidence plays a certain role in this regard, since as late as the year 2000 we were not able to accumulate more than 1278 texts in all types of Meroitic writing. If we now add to this fact the lack of lengthy texts, the lack of any bilingual text (not necessarily Egyptian /Meroitic, it could also be Ancient Greek / Meroitic, if we take into consideration that Arkamaniqo / Ergamenes *39 was personally well versed in Greek), and a certain lack of academic vision, we understand why the state of our knowledge about the history of the Ancient Meroites is still so limited.

Slide21

Linguistics and parallels from other languages have been repeatedly set in motion in order to help the academic research. Griffith and Haycock *40 tried to read Meroitic, through use of (modern) Nubian – quite unsuccessfully. K.H. Priese *41 tried to read the Meroitic texts, using Eastern Sudanese (Beja *42 or Hadendawa *43) languages – also unsuccessfully. On the other hand, F. Hintze *44, attempted to compare Meroitic with the Ural-Altaic group (Turko-Mongolian languages) to no avail. More recently, Siegbert Hummel *45, compared the “known” Meroitic words to words attested in languages of the Altaic family which he believed was a substrate language of Meroitic; as this hypothesis is totally wrong, no result came out of this effort. At times, scholars (like Clyde Winters *46) were driven to farfetched interpretations, attempting to equate Meroitic with Tokharian, after assuming a possible relationship between the names Kush and Kushan *47, the latter being the appellation of a sizeable Eastern Iranian state of the late Arsacid *48 (250 BCE – 224 CE) and early Sassanid *49 (224 – 651 CE) times. However, one has to conclude that the bulk of the researchers working on the Meroitic language never believed that the language of the Ancient Sudanese (Ethiopians) could ever be a member of the so-called Afro-Asiatic group of languages (the term itself being very wrong and quite fraudulent).

Slide22

So far, the only Meroitic words for which a solid translation had been given by Griffith and his successors are the following: man, woman, meat, bread, water, give, big, abundant, good, sister, brother, wife, mother, child, begotten, born, feet. The eventual equivalence between Egyptian and Meroitic texts was a strong motivation for any interpretational approach, recent or not. More recent, but still dubious, suggestions are the following: arohe- ‘protect’, hr- ‘eat’, pwrite ‘life’, yer ‘milk’, ar ‘boy’, are- or dm- ‘take, receive’, dime ‘cow’, hlbi ‘bull’, ns(e) ‘sacrifice’, sdk ‘journey’, tke- ‘love, revere’, we ‘dog’. It is clear that vocalization remains a real problem *50.

Slide23

Through the aforementioned we realize why collective works, like Fontes Historiae Nubiorum. Textual Sources for the History of the Middle Nile Region (vols. I – IV, edited by T. Eide, T. Haegg, R.H. Pierce, and L. Torok, University of Bergen, Bergen 1994, 1996. 1998 and 2000), are still seminal for our – unfortunately indirect, as based on Ancient Egyptian, Greek, Latin and Coptic texts – knowledge of Ancient Meroe.

Slide26

2. The End of Meroe

Amidst numerous unclear points of the Kushitic / Meroitic (Ancient Sudanese / Ethiopian) History, the end of Meroe and the consequences under which it happened still remain a most controversial point among scholars. Quite indicatively, we may mention here the main efforts of historical reconstitution.

Slide27

A. Arkell, Sayce and others asserted that Meroe was captured and destroyed, following one military expedition led by Ezana of Axum.

B. Reisner insisted that, after Ezana’s invasion and victory, Meroe remained a state under another dynasty tributary to Axum.

C. Monneret de Villard and Hintze affirmed that Meroe was totally destroyed already before Ezana’s invasion, due to another, earlier Axumite Abyssinian raid.

D. Torok, Shinnie, Kirwan, Haegg and others concluded that Meroe was defeated by a predecessor of Ezana, and continued existing as a vassal state.

E. Bechhaus-Gerst specified that Meroe was invaded prior to Ezana’s raid, and that the Axumite invasion did not reach further lands north of Meroe *51.

naqa-sudan

With two fragmentary inscriptions from Meroe, one from Axum, two graffitos from Kawa and Meroe, and one coin being all the evidence we have so far, we have little to properly reconstruct the details that led to the collapse of Meroe. One relevant source, the Inscription of Ezana (DAE 11, the ‘monotheistic’ inscription in vocalized Ge’ez), *52 remains a somewhat controversial historical source to be useful in this regard. The legendary Monumentum Adulitanum *53, lost but copied in a confused way by Cosmas Indicopleustes *54, may not shed light at all on this event. One point is sure, however: there was never a generalized massacre of the Meroitic inhabitants of the lands conquered by Ezana. The aforementioned DAE 11 inscription mentions just 758 Meroites killed by the Axumite forces.

map_of_sudan__new_

What is even more difficult to comprehend is the reason behind the scarcity of population attested on Meroitic lands in the aftermath of Ezana’s raid. The post-Meroitic and pre-Christian, transitional, phase of Sudan’s history is called X-Group *55 or Period, and also Ballana Period; this atypical appellation underscores the lack to historical insight that happens once more in the History of Ancient Sudan (Ethiopia).

Slide29

During the Ballana Period (X-Group) and contrarily to what happened for many centuries of Meroitic History, when the Meroitic South (the area between today’s Shendi *56 and Atbarah *57 in modern Sudan with the entire hinterland of Butana that was called Insula Meroe / Nesos Meroe, i.e. Island Meroe in the Antiquity) was overpopulated comparatively with the Meroitic North {the area between Napata / Karima and Abu Simbel *58 or further in the North, Aswan *59 (the area between Aswan and Abu Simbel was then called Triakontaschoinos *60 and politically, it was divided between Meroe and the Roman Empire)}, the previously under-populated area (i.e. the Meroitic North) gives us the impression of a more densely peopled region, if compared to the previous center of Meroitic power and population density (the Meroitic South). The new situation contradicts therefore the earlier descriptions and narrations by Dio Cassius *61 and Strabo *62.

Slide32

Furthermore, the name ‘Ballana period’ is quite indicative in this regard, because Ballana is located on Egyptian soil, whereas not far, south of the present Sudanese – Egyptian border, lies Karanog with its famous tumuli that bear evidence of Nubian (not Kushitic / Meroitic) upper hand in terms of social anthropology. The southernmost counterpart of Karanog culture can be found in Tangassi (nearby Karima, which represented the ‘North’ for what was the center of the earlier Meroitic power). This means that for the period immediately after the destruction of Meroe (ca. 370 CE), the Meroitic North offers the archaeological evidence that serves to name the entire period (Ballana Period), whereas the Meroitic South seems to have been totally uninhabited.

In addition, in terms of culture, X-Group heralds a total break with the Meroitic tradition, with the Nubians and the Blemmyes/Beja outnumbering the Meroitic remnants and imposing a completely different cultural and socio-anthropological milieu out of which would later emanate the first and single Nubian state in the World History: Nobatia.

Much confusion characterized modern scholars when referring to Kush or Meroe by using the modern term ‘Nubia’. By now, it is clear that the Nubians lived since times immemorial in both Egypt and the Sudan, being part of the history of these two lands. However, the Nubians are a Nilo-Saharan ethno-linguistic group different from the Hamitic Kushites / Meroites. At the times of X-Group and during the long centuries of Christian Sudan, we have the opportunity to attest the differences and the divergence between the Nubians and the Meroitic remnants.

Following the collapse of the Meroitic state, the epicenter of the Nubian land, i.e. the area between the first (Aswan) and the third (Kerma) cataracts, rose to independence and prominence first, with capital at Faras, nearby the present day Sudanese – Egyptian border, around 450 CE. Nobatia institutionalized Coptic as religious (Christian) and administrative language, and Nubian language remained an oral only means of communication. The Nobatian control in the areas south of the third cataract was vague, nominal and precarious. Nobatia was linked with the Coptic (‘Monophysitic’) Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Slide38

This means something very important for the Christian History of Sudan (Ethiopia); Christianization did not come from Abyssinia, and there was no cultural or religious impact exercised by Axum on (Ethiopia) Sudan. As in pre-Christian times, Ethiopia remained the absolute opposite of Abyssinia. In the true, historical Ethiopia (Sudan), Christianization came from the North (Egypt). Abyssinia (which cannot be called ‘Ethiopia’ and which has absolutely no right to the name of Ethiopia) was a marginal and isolated, tiny and mountainous state that basically controlled the land between Axum and Adulis (on the Red Sea shore). And King Ezana’s invasion and destruction of Meroe was an occasional and inconsequential event that did not bring forth any immediate major result.

The Meroitic remnants underscored their difference from the Nubians / Nobatians, and the depopulated central part of the defunct state of Meroe rose to independence only later, in the first decades of the sixth century. Its name, Makuria, is in this regard a linguistic reminiscence of the name ‘Meroe’, but we cannot know its real origin and meaning. The remnant of the Meroitic populations inhabited the northern circumference of Makuria more densely, and the gravitation center revolved around Old Dongola (580 km south of Wadi Halfa), capital of this Christian Orthodox state that extended from Kerma to Shendi (the area of the sixth cataract), so for more than 1000 km alongside the Nile. But beyond the area of Karima (750 km in the south of Wadi Halfa) and the nearby famous Makurian monastery at Al Ghazali we have very scarce evidence of Christian antiquities. The old African metropolis of Meroe remained at the periphery of both, the Kushitic Ethiopian states of Makuria and Alodia and the Semitic Abyssinian state of Axum.

Makurians highlighted their ideological – religious divergence from the Nubians, by adopting Greek, not Coptic, as religious language. They even introduced a new scripture for their Makurian language that seems to have been a later phase of Meroitic. Makurian was written in alphabetic Greek signs. Risen at a time of Christological disputes and theological conflicts that brought about a forceful polarization between the Greek Orthodox and the Coptic ‘Monophysitic’ Patriarchates of Alexandria, the state and the Christian church of Makuria sided with the Greek Patriarchate of Alexandria, in striking opposition to the Nobatian state and church that allied themselves with the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Further in the South, Alodia has long been called by modern scholars as the ‘third Christian state’ of Sudan, but recent discoveries in Soba, its capital (15 km at the east of Khartoum), suggest that Alodia rose first to independence (around 500 CE) and later adhered to Christianity (around 580 – 600 CE), following evangelization efforts deployed by missionary Nobatian priests (possibly in a sort of anti-Makurian religious diplomacy). In general, we know little about Alodia (or Aluwah or Alwa), and we actually don’t know whether they used a particular Alodian writing system.

The later phases of the History of Christian Ethiopia (Sudan) encompass the Nobatian – Makkurian merge (around 1000 CE), which was necessary for the two Christian states to defend themselves against the Islamic pressure coming manly from the North (Egypt), the islamization of Makkuria in 1317, and finally, the late collapse of Christian Alodia in 1505.

The question remains unanswered until today:

– What happened to the bulk of the Meroitic population, i.e. the inhabitants of the Insula Meroe, the present day Butana? What occurred to the Meroites living between the fourth and the sixth cataracts after the presumably brief raid of Ezana of Axum, and the subsequent destruction of Meroe, Mussawarat es Sufra, Naqah, Wad ben Naqah, Basa and all the other important cities of the Meroitic heartland?

3. Reconstruction of the Post-Meroitic History of the Kushitic Oromo Nation

Certainly, the motives of Ezana’s raid have not yet been properly studied and assessed by modern scholarship. The reasons for the raid may vary from a simple nationalistic usurpation of the name of ‘Ethiopia’ (Kush), which would give a certain Christian eschatological legitimacy to the Axumite Abyssinian kingdom, to the needs of international politics (at the end of 4th c. CE) and the eventuality of an Iranian – Yemenite (Himyaritic) – Meroitic alliance at the times of Shapur II (310 – 379), aimed at outweighing the Eastern Roman – Abyssinian bond.

Yet, this Iranian – Sudanese political alliance may have been only the later phase of a time-honored Iranian infiltration that could have taken the form of an (easily assessable by both civilizations and nations, the Meroites and the Iranians) heliocentric theology and imperial ideology. No less than 300-350 years before Ezana’s raid and destruction of Meroe, the famous Jebel Qeili reliefs of Shorakaror mark an impressive penetration of Mithraic artistic and religious concepts and forms.

Slide45

Whatever the reasons of Ezana’s raid may have been, we can be quite sure, when it comes to the destruction of Meroe, about two determinant points that impose a fresh approach and interpretation of the historical development:

a) the absence of any large-scale massacre is evident, and

b) the impressive scarcity of population in the old, central Meroitic provinces is a fact for the period that follows Ezana’s raid and the destruction of Meroe.

The only plausible explanation is that the scarcity of population in the Meroitic mainland after Meroe’s destruction must be due to a large scale migration to safer areas far from the reach of the king of Axum.

The only explanation to match the historical facts and the archeological evidence is that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites in their outright majority (at least for the inhabitants of Meroe’s southern provinces) fled and migrated to areas where they would stay independent from the Semitic Abyssinian kingdom of Christian Axum. This explanation hinges on the best utilization and interpretation of the already existing historical – archaeological data.

From archeological evidence, it becomes clear that during X-Group phase and throughout the Makurian period (so for many long centuries) the former heartland of Meroe remained mostly uninhabited. The end of Meroe is definitely very abrupt, and this makes obvious that Meroe’s driving force had gone elsewhere. The correct question would then be ‘where to’?

There is no evidence of Meroites sailing the Nile downwards to the area of the 4th (Karima) and the 3rd (Kerma) cataracts, which was earlier the northern circumference of Meroe and remained totally untouched by Ezana. There is no textual evidence in Greek, Latin and/or Coptic to testify to such a migratory movement toward the North. Christian Roman Egypt would certainly be an incredible direction, but if this had been the case, the migration would have been recorded in some texts and monuments due to its importance. To the above, we have to add the impossibility of marching to the heartland of Abyssinia, because this must have been for the migrating Meroites the only direction to avoid, and again if it had occurred, it would have been mentioned in some historical sources, Ge’ez, Coptic, Syriac, Greek or Latin.

Having therefore excluded all the migration alternatives as per above, we can examine the remaining possibilities. The migrating Meroites could therefore have a) gone either to the vast areas of the Eastern and the Western deserts , b) entered the African jungle or c) ultimately searched for a possibly free land that, being arable and good for pasture, would keep them far from the sphere of the Christian Axumites.

It would be very erroneous and highly unlikely to expect settled people to move to the desert. Such an eventuality would be a unique oxymoron in the History of the Mankind. Nomadic peoples move from the steppes, the savannas and the deserts to other parts of the steppes, the savannas and the deserts or preferably to fertile lands and settle there, at times crossing really long distances. However, settled people, if under pressure, move to other fertile lands that offer them the possibility of cultivation and pasture. When dispersed by the invading Sea Peoples, the Hittites moved from Anatolia to Northwestern Mesopotamia, crossing long distances; they did not cross shorter distance to settle in the small part of Central Anatolia that happened to be desert. The few scholars, who may think that Meroitic continuity can be found among the present day Beja and Hadendawa, are oblivious to the aforementioned reality that was never contravened throughout World History. In addition, the Blemmyes had never been friendly to the Meroites. Every now and then, they had attacked parts of the Nile valley and the Meroites had had to repulse them thence. It would rather be inconceivable for the Meroitic population, after seeing Meroe sacked by Ezana, to move to a land where life would be far more difficult and, in addition, enemies would wait them!

At this point, we should briefly examine Meroe’s surrounding environment, how it is today, and how it was before 1650 years, at the times of king Ezana’s raid. Modern technologies help historians and archeologists better reconstruct the ancient world; paleo-botanists, geologists, geo-chemists, paleo-entomologists, and other specialized natural scientists are of great help in this regard. It is essential to stress here that the entire environmental milieu of Sudan was very different during the times of the Late Antiquity that we examine in our approach. Butana may look like a wasteland nowadays, and the Pyramids of Bagrawiyah may be sunk in the sand, whereas Mussawarat es Sufra and Naqah truly demand a real effort in crossing the desert. However, in the first centuries of Christian era, the entire landscape was dramatically different.

During the Meroitic and Christian times, the entire Butana region, delineated by the rivers Atbarah in the northeast, United Nile in the north-northwest, and Blue Nile in southwest, was not a desert, but a very fertile and extensively cultivated land. We have actually found remains of reservoirs, aqueducts, various hydraulic installations, irrigation systems, and canals in Meroe and elsewhere. Not far from Mussawarat es Sufra there must have been an enclosure where captive elephants were trained before being transported to Ptolemais Theron (present day Suakin, 50 km south of Port Sudan) and then further on to Alexandria. Desert was in the vicinity, certainly, but not that close.

We should not imagine that Ezana crossed desert areas, moving from the vicinities of Agordat, Tesseney (both cities being located in Eritrea), and Kessala (in Sudan) to Atbarah and Bagrawiyah, as we would do today. These lands were either forested or cultivated and used as pasturelands. For what the Meroitic Ethiopian state was in the middle – second half of the 4th c. CE, its capital was located quite close to the Abyssinian borders in the mountains beyond the modern Sudanese city of Kessala; the distance between the two capitals, Meroe and Axum, was much smaller than the distance between Meroe and its northern borders with the Christian Eastern Roman Empire.

In fact, the end of the Meroitic state is a historical irony; it was established with the transfer of capital from Napata to Meroe, ca. 750 years earlier, an act which was due to defense reasons and imposed only after the 6th c. BCE attacks that originated from the North (Egypt). By transferring their capital far to the southeast, the Ancient Kushites / Meroites of Ethiopia (Sudan) made it impregnable from the North; but by so doing, they exposed their capital to an attack from the southeast. However, one has to admit that, at the times of the Ethiopian – Kushitic capital transfer to the southeast (5th – 4th c. BCE), the presence of the Yemenite tribe of Habashat in the African coast land of Eritrea was insignificant and Axum did not exist.

Further expanding on the natural environment of the Ancient Meroites, we have to add that it would be highly unlikely for anyone to attempt to cross at that time the lands south of present day Khartoum, alongside the White Nile. In ancient times, impenetrable jungle started immediately in the south of Khartoum, and cities like El Obeid, Kosti, Sinnar, and Jabalayn are today located on deforested soil.

Contrarily to the aforementioned improbabilities (desert, jungle), the southernmost confines of the Meroitic state offered a certain possibility for migration, since pasturelands and arable land could be found alongside the Blue Nile Valley. Reaching that area, they would achieve safety from Axumite Abyssinia due to the greater distance.

Jungle signified death in the Antiquity, and even armies feared to cross forests and be forced to stay overnight there. We therefore have good reason to believe that, following Ezana’s raid, the Meroites, rejecting the perspective of forced christening, moved first southwestwards up to Khartoum. From there, they proceeded southeastwards alongside the Blue Nile in a direction that would keep them always safe and far from the Axumite Abyssinians whose state did not expand at those days as far in the south as Gondar and Tana Lake. Proceeding in this way and crossing successively areas of modern cities like Wad Madani, Sennar, Damazin, and Asosa, and from there on, they expanded in later times over the various parts of Biyya Oromo.

We do not imply that the migration was completed in the span of one lifetime; quite contrarily, we have reasons to believe that the establishment of Alodia (or Alwa) is rather due to the progressive waves of Meroitic migrants who settled first in the area of Khartoum that was out of the southwestern confines of the Meroitic state. Only when Christianization became a matter of concern for the evangelizing Nobatians, and the two Christian Sudanese states of Nobatia and Makuria were already strong, the chances of preserving the pre-Christian Meroitic cultural heritage in the area around Soba (capital of Alodia) became truly poor. Then, perhaps more than 100 years after the first migration, another wave of migration took place with the early Alodian Meroites proceeding as far in the southeast as Damazin and Asosa, areas that remained always beyond the southern border of Alodia (presumably between Khartoum and Wad Madani). Like this, the second migratory Meroitic Alodian) wave may have entered around 600 CE in the area where the Oromos, descendents of the migrated Meroites, still live today.

A great number of changes at the cultural – intellectual – behavioral levels are to be expected, when a settled people migrates to faraway lands. The Phoenicians had kings in Tyre, Byblos and their other cities – states in today’s Lebanese and Syrian coast lands, but they introduced a democratic system when they sailed faraway and colonized various parts of the Mediterranean. In their colonies, there were no more kings.

Ezana’s raid ended up with the extermination of some garrison and the Meroitic royal family. The collapse of the Meroitic royalty was an unprecedented event and a greater shock for the Nile valley. The Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia were all ruled by kings whose power was to great extent conditioned and counterbalanced by that of the Christian clergy.

With the Meroitic royal family decimated by Ezana, it is quite possible that high priests of Apedemak and Amani (Amun) took much of the administrative responsibility in their hands, inciting people to migrate and establishing a form of collective and representative authority among the Meroitic – Alodian Elders who thus retained the sacerdotal heritage without a royal – palatial contextualization. They may even have preserved the royal title of Qore within completely different socio-anthropological context and thus made it known to the ancestors of today’s Somalis when the next waves of migration brought the two Kushitic nations close to one another; and the Somalis preserved the term a Boqor within their language until our times.

4. Call for Comparative Meroitic-Oromo Studies

How can this approach, interpretation, and conclusion be corroborated up to the point of becoming a generally accepted historical reconstitution at the academic level? On what axes should one group of researchers work to collect detailed documentation in support of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos?

Quite strangely, I would not give priority to the linguistic approach. The continuity of a language can prove many things, and at the same time, it can prove nothing. Today’s Bulgarians are of Uralo-Altaic Turco-Mongolian origin, but, after they settled in Eastern Balkans, they were linguistically slavicized. Most of the Greeks are Albanians, Slavs, and Vlachians, who were greecized linguistically. Most of the Turks in Turkey are Greeks and Anatolians, who were turkicized linguistically.

People can preserve their own language in various degrees and forms. For the case of languages preserved throughout millennia, we notice tremendous changes and differences. Within the context of Ancient Greece, Plato who lived in the 5th – 4th c. BCE could never understand the Achaean Greek dialect which was spoken 800 years earlier at Myceanae and written by means of what we call today ‘Linear B’ (a syllabic, not alphabetic, writing system).

Egyptian hieroglyphics as a Holy Language (the Ancient Egyptian name of this writing system was ‘medu netsher’ which meant ‘the words of the God’) and as a sacerdotal scripture favored a certain archaism and a constant linguistic purification. However, we can be sure that for later Pharaohs, like Taharqa the Kushite (the most illustrious ruler of the Kushitic – Sudanese / Ethiopian dynasty), Psamtik and Nechao (the rulers of the ‘Libyan’ dynasty), and Ptolemy II and Cleopatra VII (of the Macedonian Ptolemaic dynasty), a Pyramid text (that antedated them by 1700 to 2300 years) would almost be incomprehensible.

A. National diachronic continuity is better attested and more markedly noticed in terms of Culture, Religion and Philosophical – Behavioral system. The first circle of comparative research should encompass the world of the Kushitic / Meroitic and Oromo concepts, anything that relates to the Weltanschauung of the two cultural units/groups under study; this should involve a religious-historical comparison between the Ancient Kushitic / Meroitic religion and Waaqeffannaa. A common view of basic themes of life and a common perception of the world, same virtues and values, shared concepts and principles would bring a significant corroboration of the Meroitic ancestry of the Oromos. So, first it is a matter of history of religions, African philosophy, social anthropology, ethnography and culture history.

B. Archeological research can help tremendously too. At this point, one has to state that the critical area for the reconstruction of the suggested Meroitic migration did not attract the interest of Egyptologists, and of archaeologists specializing in Meroitic and Sudanese Antiquities. The area was indeed marginal to both civilizations, and to some extent it is normal that it did not attract scholars who could easily unearth other monumental sites elsewhere and have more spectacular results. The Blue Nile valley in Sudan and Abyssinia was never the subject of an archeological survey, and the same concerns the Oromo highlands. Certainly modern archeologists prefer something concrete that would lead them fast to a great discovery, being therefore very different from the pioneering 19th c. archeologists. An archeological surface survey would therefore be necessary in the Blue Nile valley and in the Oromo highlands in the years to come.

C. A linguistic – epigraphic approach may bring forth even more spectacular results. It could eventually end up with a complete decipherment of the Meroitic, and of the Makurian. An effort must be made to read the Meroitic texts, hieroglyphic and cursive, with the help of Oromo language. Meroitic personal names and toponymics must be studied in the light of a potential Oromo interpretation. Comparative linguistics may unveil affinities that will lead to reconsideration of the work done so far in the Meroitic decipherment.

D. Last but not least, another dimension would be added to the project with the initiation of comparative anthropological studies. Data extracted from findings in the Meroitic cemeteries must be compared with data provided by the anthropological study of present day Oromos. The research must encompass pictorial documentation from the various Meroitic temples’ bas-reliefs.

To all these I would add a better reassessment of the existing historical sources, but this is not a critical dimension of this research project.

I believe my call for Comparative Meroitic – Oromo Studies reached the correct audience that can truly evaluate the significance of the ultimate corroboration of the Meroitic Ancestry of the Oromos, as well as the magnificent consequences that such a corroboration would have in view of

a) the forthcoming Kushitic Palingenesia – or Renaissance if you want – across Africa,

b) the establishment of a Post -Colonial African Historiography, and – last but not least –

c) the Liberation of Oromia and the Representation of the Ancient Kushitic Nation in the United Nations.

Slide63

Notes

1. To those having the slightest doubt, trying for purely political reasons and evil speculation to include territories of the modern state of Abyssinia into what the Ancient Greeks and Romans called ‘Aethiopia’, the academically authoritative entry Aethiopia in Pauly-Wissowa, Realenzyklopadie der klassischen Altertumwissenschaft consists in the best and irrevocable answer.

2. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information … karl.html; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Richard_Lepsius; parts of the Denkmaeler are already available online: http://edoc3.bibliothek.uni-halle.de/bo … start.html. Also: http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/LEO_LOB/L … 1884_.html. The fact that the farthermost point of ‘Ethiopia’ that he reached was Khartoum is of course quite telling.

3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._A._Wallis_Budge; he wrote among the rest a book on his Meroe excavations’ results, The Egyptian Sudan: its History and Monuments (London, 1907).

4. Mythical figure of the British Orientalism, Garstang excavated in England, Turkey, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and the Sudan; Albright, William Foxwell: “John Garstang in Memoriam”, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 144. (Dec., 1956), pp. 7-8; Garstang’s major articles on his Meroe excavations are the following: ‘Preliminary Note on an Expedition to Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 3 (1911 – a), ‘Second Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia, I. Excavations’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 4 (1911 – b), ‘Third Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 5 (1912), ‘Forth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 6 (1913), and ‘Fifth Interim Report on the Excavations at Meroe in Ethiopia’, Annals of Archaeology and Anthropology 7 (1914). His major contribution was published in the same year under the title ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’ (Oxford). A leading Meroitologist, Laszlo Torok wrote an entire volume on Garstang’s excavations at Meroe: Meroe City, an Ancient African Capital: John Garstang’s Excavations in the Sudan.

5. Griffith was the epigraphist of Grastand and had already published the epigraphic evidence unearthed at Meroe in the chapter entitled ‘the Inscriptions from Meroe’ in Garstang’s ‘Meroe, the City of Ethiopians’. After many pioneering researches and excavations in various parts of Egypt and Northern Sudan, Faras, Karanog, Napata and Philae to name but a few, Griffith concentrated on Kerma: ‘Excavations at Kawa’, Sudan Notes and Records 14.

6. Basically: http://www.sag-online.de/pdf/mittsag9.5.pdf; among other contributions: Die Inschriften des Loewentempels von Musawwarat es Sufra, Berlin (1962); Vorbericht ueber die Ausgrabungen des Instituts fuer Aegyptologie der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin in Musawwarat es Sufra, 1960-1961 (1962); ‘Musawwarat es Sufra – Preliminary Report on the Excavations of the Institute of Egyptology, Humboldt University, Berlin, 1961-1962 (Third Season)’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary Note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1962’, Kush 11 (1963); ‘Preliminary note on the Epigraphic Expedition to Sudanese Nubia, 1963’, Kush 13 (1965)

7. As regards my French professor’s publications about his excavations at Sudan: Soleb and Sedeinga in Lexikon der Aegyptologie 5, Wiesbaden 1984 (entries contributed by J. Leclant himself); also J. Leclant, Les reconnaissances archéologiques au Soudan, in: Etudes nubiennes I, 57-60.

8. His recent volume Sudan: Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile, Paris/New York (1997) contains earlier bibliography.

9. Some of his most authoritative publications: ‘A History of the Sudan from the Earliest Times to 1821′, 1961 (2nd Ed.), London; ”The Valley of the Nile’, in: The Dawn of African History, R. Oliver (ed.), London. Arkell is mostly renowned for his monumental ‘The Royal Cemeteries of Kush’ in many volumes.

10. Presentation of his ‘Ancient Nubia’ in: http://www.keganpaul.com/product_info.p … cts_id=33; for a non exhaustive list of Shinnie’s publications: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; see also a presentation of a volume on Meroe, edited by Shinnie et alii: http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/mcgi/ … 1163879905{haupt_harrassowitz= http://www.harrassowitz-verlag.de/acgi/a.cgi?alayout=489&ausgabe=detail&aref=353.

11. Many of his publications are listed here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ia2.htm#S; also here: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … ypt4.htm#T. In the Eighth International Conference for Meroitic Studies, L. Torok spoke about ‘The End of Meroe’; the speech will be included in the arkamani online project, here: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … -meroe.htm

12. Useful reading: http://www.culturekiosque.com/art/exhib … souda.htm; also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history4.html; see also the entry ‘Kush’ in Lexikon der Aegyptologie and the Encyclopedia Judaica. More specifically about the Egyptian Hieroglyphic and the Hebrew writings of the name of Kush: http://www.specialtyinterests.net/journey_to_nubia.html. For more recent bibliography: http://blackhistorypages.net/pages/kush.php. Also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cush%2C_son_of_Ham.

13. Basic bibliography in: http://www.arkamani.org/bibliography%20 … y_a_b.htm; http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NUB/NUBX … chure.html. More particularly on Qustul, and the local Group A Cemetery that was discovered in the 60s by Dr. Keith Seele: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/qustul.html (by Bruce Beyer Williams). Quite interesting approach by Clyde Winters as regards an eventual use of Egyptian Hieroglyphics in Group A Nubia, 200 years before the system was introduced in Egypt: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/anwrite.htm.

14. Brief info: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history3_1.html; see also: http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/IS/RITNER/Nubia_2005.html; more recently several scholars consider Group B as an extension of Group A (GRATIEN, Brigitte, La Basse Nubie a l’ Ancien Empire: Egyptiens et autochtones, JEA 81 (1995), 43-56).

15.Readings: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/geoghist/histories/oldcivilization/Egyptology/Nubia/nubiad1.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sneferu; ht … %20Snefrue),%201st%20King%20of%20Egypt’s%204th%20Dynasty.htm (with bibliography); http://www.narmer.pl/dyn/04en.htm; for the Palermo stone inscription where we have the Nubia expedition narrative: http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-9332360; http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on the Palermo Stone); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palermo_stone (with related bibliography).

16. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nubian_C-Group; (the title being however very wrong because this culture was not Nubian) http://www.numibia.net/nubia/c-group.htm; http://www.gustavianum.uu.se/sje/sjeexh.htm and http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ta/tae.html (with designs and pictures); http://www.ancientsudan.org/03_burials_02_early.htm (with focus on Group C burials and burial architecture); see also: http://www.ualberta.ca/~nlovell/nubia.htm; http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/bce-2300a.htm

17. References in the Lexikon der Aegyptologie. See also: http://www.nigli.net/akhenaten/wawat_1.html; one of the related sources: The Story of an Egyptian Politician, published by T. G. Allen, in: American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Oct., 1921), pp. 55-62; Texts relating to Egyptian expeditions in Yam and Irtet: http://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/assouan … rkouf.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medjay; more in ‘Ancient Nubia: Egypt’s Rival in Africa’ (Paperback) by David O’ Connor, http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/092417 … 67-0196731.

18. Brief description: http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/stsmit … erma.html; http://www.spicey.demon.co.uk/Nubianpag … htm#French (with several interesting links); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Kerma (brief but with recent bibliography containing some of Bonnet’s publications)

19. Vivian Davies, ‘La frontiere meridionale de l’ Empire : Les Egyptiens a Kurgus, in: Bulletin de la Societe francaise d’ Egyptologie, 2003, no157, pp. 23-37 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15281726); about the ongoing British excavations: http://www.sudarchrs.org.uk/page17.html; about the inscription of Thutmosis I: http://thutmosis_i.know-library.net; also: http://www.meritneith.de/politik_neuesreich.htm, and http://www.aegyptologie.com/forum/cgi-b … 0514112733.

20. In brief and with images: http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/um/umj.html; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kush (with selected recent bibliography) and http://www.mfa.org/collections/search_a … kage=26155 (for art visualization). The period is also called Napatan, out of the Kushitic state capital’s name: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/kingaspalta.html.

21. To start with: http://www.bartleby.com/67/99.html; http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9054804/Napata; http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology … apata.html (including references); most authoritative presentation by Timothy Kendall ‘Gebel Barkal and Ancient Napata’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nubia.htm; also: ‘the Rise of the Kushitic kingdom’ by Brian Yare, in: http://www.yare.org/essays/kushite%20ki … Napata.htm. For Karima, notice the interesting itinerary: http://lts3.algonquincollege.com/africa … /sudan.htm, and http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karima.

22. Introductory reading: http://www.ancient-egypt.org/index.html (click on Manetho); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manetho (with selected bibliography). Among the aforementioned, the entries Manethon (Realenzyklopaedie) and Manetho (Lexikon der Aegyptologie) are essential.

23. For the Ethiopian dynasty, all the related entries in the Lexikon and the Realenzyklopaedie (Piankhi, Shabaka, Shabataka, Taharqa, Tanutamon) are the basic bibliography to start with; see also: http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/3017.html; the last edition (1996) of Kenneth Kitchen’s ‘The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100 – 650 BC)’, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, remains the best reassessment of the period and the related sources. Introductory information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabaka; http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shabataka; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taharqa; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tantamani. Also: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/mentuemhat.html; critical bibliography for understanding the perplex period is to be found in Jean Leclant’s lectureship thesis (these d’ Etat) ‘Montouemhat, Quatrieme Prophete d’Amon’, (1961)

24. Basics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assarhaddon; the edition of the Assyrian emperor’s annals by R. Borger (Die Inschriften Assarhaddons, Koenigs von Assyrien, AfO 9, Graz, 1956) remain our basic reference to formal sources. More recently, F. Reynolds shed light on private sources, publishing ‘The Babylonian correspondence of Esarhaddon, and letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-Sarru-Iskun from Northern and Central Babylonia’ (SAA 18, 2004).

25. For the Greater Emperor of the Oriental Antiquity: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashurbanipal; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamash-shum-ukin; http://web.utk.edu/~djones39/Assurbanipal.html; until today we have to rely mostly on the voluminous edition of Assurbanipal’s Annals by Maximilian Streck (Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen Koenige bis zum Untergang Niniveh, Leipzig,1916); see also M. W. Waters’ Te’umman in the neo-Assyrian correspondence (Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1999, vol. 119, no3, pp. 473-477)

26. Heliopolis (Iwnw in Egyptian Hieroglyphic, literally the place of the pillars; On in Hebrew and in Septuagint Greek) was the center of Egyptian monotheism, the holiest religious center throughout Ancient Egypt; it is from Heliopolis that emanated the two foremost Ancient Egyptian theological systems, namely the Isiac ideology and the Atum Ennead. Basic readings: the entry Heliopolis in Realenzyklopaedie and in Lexikon der Aegyptologie; more recently: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heliopolis_%28ancient%29.

27. Basic readings: http://www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk/chron … tiki.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psammetichus_I; http://www.phouka.com/pharaoh/pharaoh/d … tik1.html; http://www.specialtyinterests.net/psamtek.html (with pictorial documentation). See also: http://www.nubianet.org/about/about_history6.html.

28. Hakhamaneshian is the first Persian dynasty; it got momentum when Cyrus II invaded successively Media and Babylon. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_dynasty (with selected bibliography); the 2nd volume of the Cambridge History of Iran is dedicated to Achaemenid history (contents: http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/c … 0521200911.

29. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambyses_II_of_Persia (with bibliography and sources). Cambyses invaded Kush and destroyed Napata at the times of Amani-natake-lebte, but his embattled army was decimated according to the famous narratives of Herodotus that still need to be corroborated. What seems more plausible is that, having reached in an unfriendly milieu of the Saharan desert where they had no earlier experience, the Persians soldiers, at a distance of no less than 4000 km from their capital, faced guerilla undertaken by the Kushitic army remnants and their nomadic allies.

30. Nastasen was the last to be buried in Nuri, in the whereabouts of Napata. Contemporary with Alexander the Great, Nastasen fought against an invader originating from Egypt whose name was recorded as Kambasawden. This led many to confuse the invader with Cambyses, who ruled 200 years earlier (!). The small inscription on the Letti stela does not allow great speculation; was it an attempt of Alexander the Great to proceed to the south of which we never heard anything? Impossible to conclude; for photographical documentation: http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 00017&ord=. Another interpretation: http://www.nubia2006.uw.edu.pl/nubia/ab … 94e6349d8b.

31. Arkamaniqo was the first to have his pyramid built at Meroe, not at Napata. See: http://www.dignubia.org/bookshelf/ruler … 0018&ord=; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes. He inaugurated the architectural works at Dakka, the famous ancient Egyptian Pa Serqet, known in Greek literature as Pselkhis (http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/dakka.htm), in veneration of God Thot, an endeavour that brought the Ptolemies and the Meroites in alliance.

32. For Abyssinia’s conversion to Christianity: http://www.spiritualite2000.com/page.php?idpage=555, and http://www.rjliban.com/Saint-Frumentius.doc. The Wikipedia entry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezana_of_Axum) is written by ignorant and chauvinist people, and is full of mistakes, ascribing provocatively and irrelevantly to Ezana’s state the following territories (using modern names): ‘present-day Eritrea, northern Ethiopia, Yemen, southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, northern Sudan, and southern Egypt’. This is just rubbish. All this shows how misleading this irrelevant ‘encyclopedia’ can at times be. Neither southern Egypt, nor northern Sudan, nor northern Somalia, nor Djibouti, nor Yemen, nor southern Saudi Arabia ever belonged to Ezana’s small kingdom that extended from Adulis to Axum. It is only after that king’s victory over Meroe that his kingdom included also a tiny portion of modern Sudan’s territories, namely the region between Kessala, Atbara and Bagrawiyah where the site of Ancient Meroe is located. But this was quite precarious and soon the Abyssinian control over that part of Ethiopia (: Sudan) ended.

33. Richard A. Lobban, ‘The Nubian Dynasty of Kush and Egypt: Continuing Research on Dynasty XXV’: http://209.85.129.104/search?q=cache:4F … clnk&cd=2; these inscriptions were published as early as 1821: E. F. Gau, Nubische Denkmaeler (Stuttgart). Other early publications on Meroitic antiquities: E. Riippell, Reisen in Nubien, Kordofan, & c. (Frankfort a. M., 1829); F. Caillaud, Voyage a Meroe (Paris, 1826); J. L. Burckhardt, Travels in Nubia, e5fc. (London, 1819); G. Waddington and B. Hanbury, Journal of a Visit to some parts of Ethiopia (London, 1822); L. Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache (Vienna, 1879); Memoirs of the Societe khediviale de Geographic, Cairo.

34. Readings: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/candace.html; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanakdakhete; more analytically: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … graphy.htm. The only inscription giving her name comes from Temple F in Naga (REM 0039A-B). The name appears in Meroitic hieroglyphics in the middle of an Egyptian text. See also: Laszlo Torok, in: Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. II, Bergen 1996, 660-662. The first attempts to render full Meroitic phrases into hieroglyphs (not only personal names, as it was common earlier) can be dated from the turn of the 3rd / 2nd century BCE, but they reflect the earlier stage of the development.

35. C. Rilly, ‘Les graffiti archaiques de Doukki Gel et l’apparition de l’ ecriture meroitique’. Meroitic Newsletter, 2003, No 30: 41-55, pl. IX-XIII (fig. 41-48).

36. Michael H. Zach, ‘Aksum and the end of Meroe’, in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … s/Zach.htm. See also: http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf. Also: Clyde A. Winters, ‘Meroitic evidence for a Blemmy empire in the Dodekaschoinos’ in: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … labsha.htm. Kharamadoye was a Blemmyan / Beja king who lived around the year 330 CE, and his inscription was curved on the Nubian/Blemmyan temple at Kalabsha (ancient Talmis) in the south of Aswan; more: M. S. Megalommatis, ‘Sudan’s Beja / Blemmyes, and their Right to Freedom and Statehood’, in: http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/8-16-2006-105657.asp, and in: http://www.sudaneseonline.com/en/article_929.shtml. More general: http://www.touregypt.net/kalabsha.htm.

37. For Ballana: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballana; http://www.numibia.net/nubia/sites_salv … p_Numb=13; http://www.dignubia.org/maps/timeline/ce-0400.htm; http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/fne … ndex.html; for the excavations carried out there: Farid Shafiq, ‘Excavations at Ballana, 1958-1959’, Cairo, 1963: http://www.archaeologia.com/details.asp?id=647.

38. His publications encompass the following: ‘Karanog: the Meroitic Inscriptions of Karanog and Shablul’, (The Eckley B. Coxe Junior Expedition to Nubia VI), Philadelphia, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions, I, Soba to Dangul, Oxford, 1911; ‘Meroitic Inscriptions part II, Napata to Philae and Miscellaneous’, Egypt Exploration Society, Archaeological Survey of Egypt, Memoirs, London, 1912; ‘Meroitic Studies II’, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 3 (1916).

39. Readings: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergamenes; http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arqamani; list of sources concerning Ergamenes II: Laszlo Torok, ‘Fontes Historiae Nubiorum’, vol. II, Bergen 1996, S. 566-567; further: http://www.chs.harvard.edu/publications … tei.xml_1; http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/813603; an insightful view: Laszlo Torok, ‘Amasis and Ergamenes’, in: The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt. Studies Presented to Laszlo Kakosy, 555-561. An English translation of Diodorus’ text on Ergamenes (III. 6) is here: http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/diodorus.html.

40. B. G. Haycock, ‘The Problem of the Meroitic Language’, Occasional Papers in Linguistics and Language Learning, no.5 (1978), p. 50-81; see also: http://www.arkamani.org/arkamani-librar … nology.htm. Another significant contribution: B. G. Haycock, ‘Towards a Data for King Ergamenes’, Kush 13 (1965)

41. See: K. H. Priese, ‘Die Statue des napatanischen Koenigs Aramatelqo (Amtelqa) Berlin, Aegyptisches Museum Inv.-Nr. 2249 in: Festschrift zum 150 jaehrigen Bestehen des Berliner Aegyptischen Museums, Berlin; of the same author, ‘Matrilineare Erbfolge im Reich von Napata’, Zeitschrift fuer Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 108 (1981).

42. Readings: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ … /beja.htm; http://bejacongress.com;

43. Basic reading: Egeimi, Omer Abdalla, ‘From Adaptation to Marginalization: The Political Ecology of Subsistence Crisis among the Hadendawa Pastoralists of Sudan’, in: Managing Scarcity: Human Adaptation in East African Drylands, edited by Abdel Ghaffar M. Ahmed and Hassan Abdel Ati, 30-49. Proceedings of a regional workshop, Addis Ababa, 24-26 August 1995. Addis Ababa: OSSREA, 1996 (http://www.africa.upenn.edu/ossrea/ossreabiblio.html).

44. F. Hintze, ‘Some problems of Meroitic philology’, in: Studies in Ancient Languages of the Sudan, pp. 73-78; see discussions: http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Bay/7051/mero.htm and http://www.soas.ac.uk/lingfiles/working … rowan2.pdf

45. In various publications; see indicatively: ‘Die meroitische Sprache und das protoaltaische Sprachsubstrat als Medium zu ihrer Deutung (I): Mit aequivalenten von grammatikalischen Partikeln und Wortgleichungen’, Ulm/Donau (1992).

46. See: http://www.geocities.com/athens/academy … ersc2.html (with extensive list of publications).

47. Readings: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm (with further bibliography); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kushan_Empire; http://www.kushan.org; (with pictorial documentation) http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm; http://www.asianart.com/articles/jaya/index.html (with references)

48. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsacid_Dynasty; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthia; authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran

49. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sassanid_Empire (with further bibliography); authoritative presentation in Cambridge History of Iran.

50. See: http://arkamani.org/meroitic_studies/li … oitic.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … rilly.htm; http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … graphy.htm

51. http://arkamani.org/arkamani-library/me … s/Zach.htm (with reference to epigraphic sources)

52. More recently: R.Voigt, The Royal Inscriptions of King Ezana, in the Second International Littmann Conference: Aksum 7-11 January 2006 (see: http://www.oidmg.org/Beirut/downloads/L … Report.pdf); also: http://users.vnet.net/alight/aksum/mhak4.html; http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37430160. Read also: Manfred Kropp, Die traditionellen Aethiopischen Koenigslisten und ihre Quellen, in: http://www2.rz.hu-berlin.de/nilus/net-p … listen.pdf (with bibliography).

53. Readings: http://www.telemaco.unibo.it/epigr/testi05.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monumentum_Adulitanum; http://www.shabait.com/staging/publish/ … 3290.html; http://www.homestead.com/wysinger/aksum.html; http://www.arikah.net/encyclopedia/Adulis; further: Yuzo Shitomi, ‘A New Interpretation of the Monumentum Adulitanum’, in: Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, 55 (1997). French translation is available online here: http://www.clio.fr/BIBLIOTHEQUE/les_gre … hiopie.asp.

54. Readings: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04404a.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmas_Indicopleustes; text and translation can be found online: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/awiesner/cosmas.html (with bibliography and earlier text/translation publications; http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/#Cosm … opleustes; and http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/more … copleustes Also: http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/EMwebpages/202.html; http://davidburnet.com/EarlyFathers-Oth … eintro.htm.

55. Readings: http://library.thinkquest.org/22845/kus … oyalty.pdf

56. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shendi; N. I. Nooter, The Gates of Shendi, Los Angeles, 1999 (http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1565561)

57. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atbarah; http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/th … ples.html; http://www.sudan.net/tourism/cities.html.

58. Readings: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Simbel; http://www.bibleplaces.com/abusimbel.htm; http://lexicorient.com/e.o/abu_simbel.htm

59. Syene (Aswan): see the entries of Realenzyklopaedie and Lexikon der Aegyptologie; also: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aswan; http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14367a.htm

60. http://www.numibia.net/nubia/ptolemies.htm; http://rmcisadu.let.uniroma1.it/nubiaco … zymski.doc. Dodekaschoinos was the northern part of Triakontaschoinos; the area was essential for Roman border security: http://poj.peeters-leuven.be/content.ph … al_code=AS. More recently: http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/facultie … f.dijkstra

61. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dio_Cassius; see details of the early Roman rule over Egypt here: Timo Stickler, ‘Cornelius Gallus and the Beginnings of the Augustan Rule in Egypt’

62. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strabo (particularly in his 17th book); English translation available here: http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/R … 17A1*.html

Slide70

Scotland, ‘Civic Nation’, ‘Ethnic Nation’, and the Search for National Identity and Independence

4724123 mgsEBO0

By Prof. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

The modern European concept of ‘nation’ triggered ceaseless wars and interminable conflicts over the past two centuries. But was there only one modern European concept of ‘nation’? Certainly not!

Nation – a modern term with no ancient parallels

The word ‘nation’ existed in all major ancient languages that we deciphered, but it did not always have the same meaning and resonance. As we see it, it was very common for several populations that belonged to the same nation to be organized in different states. This was already typified in the world’s first civilization, the Sumerians – an exemplary case.

Before the formation of Ancient Egypt as a state around 3000 BCE, for no less than 500 years we attest the early organization and development of the first Sumerian cities-states, namely Eridu, Ur, Uruk, Larsa, Kish, Lagash, Isin, Shuruppak, etc.

The same situation is observed 2000-2500 years later among the Phoenicians, when Tyr, Sidon, Arwad, Byblos, Beirut and other states-kingdoms coexisted for hundreds of years, at times peacefully and at times at war.

The Assyrians and the Babylonians, both descendents of the Akkadians who were the earliest Semites to form an empire with Akkad (Agade) as capital in the 24th and 23rd centuries BCE, were apparently the first nation in the world to be divided on religious, cultural and ideological grounds. This started happening at the very end of the 3rd millennium BCE.

The phenomenon was repeated in Ancient Egypt, and there too we have noticed great examples of national division due to religious, cultural and ideological grounds; the post-Ramesside period (at the beginning of the 11th c. BCE) is plenty of divisions. For centuries, Egypt was divided and ruled by two or even three parallel dynasties; the 8th – 7th c. BCE clash between the Napatan – Kushitic – Sudanese dynasty (called ‘Ethiopian’ by the Ancient Egyptian Historian Manetho) and the Western Delta dynasty (that Manetho called ‘Libyan’) reflect different readings of the Ancient Egyptian Heritage to which were willingly ascribed the peripheral nations the Berber ‘Lybians’ of Egypt’s western confines and the Kushites-Ethiopians of today’s Sudanese North (who were totally unrelated to the modern Abyssinian tribes that peremptorily and fallaciously use the name of Ethiopia for their country).

Among Ancient Greeks, the extent of the division was such that even among the same tribe’s people (Ionians, Aeolians, etc.) there were several small cities-states formed.

The word ‘nation’ in English is borrowed successively from Old French, and Latin. The original Latin word ‘natio’ meant first ‘native’ (someone relevant to his/her birthplace) only to be progressively extended to all the natives of a place as a group.

At this point it is essential to state that the confusion currently existing in English between the words ‘nation’ and ‘state’ or ‘nation’ and ‘country’ does NOT exist in other languages; in English, at times, ‘nation’ means ‘state’ or ‘country’ and a lot of misunderstanding is due to this confusion, which is highly advisable never to make. Consequently, it is important to clarify at this point that, throughout the present article, the word ‘nation’ is NOT considered as synonym of the words ‘state’ and ‘country’.

This is of primordial importance, and we need to always take it into consideration. In fact, the prevalent concept is that of an indigenous people. Only this concept makes of the term ‘nation’ a real, original value in Humanities; this is due to the fact that the term describes an indigenous community of humans. The term ‘country’ in its origin is purely geographical of context; it means land. Perhaps for several religions, a particular land or piece of land may be considered as sacred or holy, but this approach does never cover all lands and places that appeared as the result of the Creation.

Similarly, the term ‘state’ denotes the governmental mechanism that exists within some well demarcated borderlines. However, there has never been a state to have any value – except that given to it by either humans (the indigenous nation) or God (in Whose Name the state in question may have been established).

Within the context of modern disciplines of Ancient History and Political Science, there has been a long discussion about the main traits and the real essence of a nation. Several authors tried to identify what the concept of ‘nation’ meant to various ancient nations. Quite unfortunately, in doing so, most of the scholars projected their own, contemporary, views and viewpoints onto the ancient texts that they collected to study. The result is therefore untrustworthy,

What is even more unfortunate is the fact that, in Modern Times, the term ‘nation’ did not mean the same thing to all philosophers, political theorists, ideologists and historians – so, every effort to examine what ‘nation’ meant in the Antiquity was definitely linked with the concept of nation each modern author had in his/her mind.

In this regard, Azar Gat was very wrong in viewing in Ancient Egypt the world’s ‘first national state’ that was formed ‘quite early as a unified state, congruent with a distinct people of shared ethnicity’. That is utterly nonsensical! The idiotic Israeli author does not in fact refer to a ‘nation’ but to a ‘national state’, which is a state properly speaking, so irrelevant to the nation itself!

Even worse, there was no one distinct people in Ancient Egypt but many; we don’t actually know how they viewed their participation in their ‘nation’ and how differently they viewed the many ethnic components of their country.

In addition, for several Ancient Egyptian religious doctrines, the Ancient Egyptian gods originated from Napata, the Kushitic-Sudanese capital near today’s Karima, more than 750 km alongside the Nile south of today’s Egyptian – Sudanese borders. For some time, this was a mere religious belief. However, in the beginning of the New Empire (1st half of the 16th c. BCE), this belief became the cornerstone of Imperial Egypt’s Kushitic irredentism, and of the subsequent annexation of North Sudan (what the Ancient Greeks and Romans called ‘Ethiopia’) by Ahmose and Thutmose I.

It is also wrong to hypothesize like Steven Grosby that the small Canaanite states of Israel, Ammon, Moab and Edom underwent a process of nation-formation as result of the Assyrian expansion that led to their subordination to Nineveh. This approach is due exclusively to unrestrained projection of modern theoretical and political viewpoints onto the study topic of the said scholar.

Similarly, Edward Cohen’s irrelevant conclusion that ancient Athens met all modern definitions of nationhood is merely due to this author’s wrong conception of the term ‘nation’ – which he later projected onto his study subject.

Nation – a modern term with two diametrically opposite concepts

 

In modern times, all possible efforts of conceptualization, identification and contextualization of the term ‘nation’ originate from two diametrically opposed concepts.

Civic nation

First comes the ‘civic nation’ theory which is a vicious distortion fabricated during the formation of Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Social Contract concept (first discussed in his homonymous book in 1762). As he never studied History and in addition was an innovative thinker, J. J. Rousseau had a total disregard of History itself. In addition, he was characterized by an absolute ignorance of the historical nations as they had existed over millennia; in Rousseau’s fictional, unreal, and at times monstrous world, a nation was just a mass population that he should fix as per his silly ideas that he had shaped without taking into account the real wishes and feelings, desires and ideas, traditions and beliefs of any nation whatsoever.

The ceaseless wars that ensued from the French Revolution, and most of the bloodshed occurred across the Earth over the past 250 years are to be credited to Rousseau’s noxious ideas and philosophical system which was an incredible and inhuman aberration of sick ego(t)istic background.

For Rousseau, what matters in a community of people is the formation of a state, which is to be politically legitimate only through the active participation of the entire population, i.e. the citizens of the country. The cynical, absolute and Macchiavellistic ‘general will’ is all that matters in this regard, and this was quite accentuated in later reconsiderations of the concept of ‘civic nation’. This approach draws however from other philosophical systems and theoretical traditions, notably rationalism and liberalism.

In reality, when it comes to the notion of ‘civic nation’, the real identity of a nation does not matter. The ‘nation’ is not viewed as a historical development and reality, but as a group of gangsters with a common will, few materialistic targets, and therefore only target-appended ‘opinions’ as regards the social organization. For this reason, membership of the civic nation is simply voluntary. In fact, many people originating from different nations can gather together in an uninhabited place and …. thus shape a ‘nation’. Unfortunately, the real problems start when these gangsters do not settle in an uninhabited place, but forcefully remove the indigenous nation of a targeted region, thus creating two nations on the same place, one legal (the indigenous one) and one illegal (the ‘civic’ nation of the gangsters).

It is therefore correct to conclude that a ‘civic nation’ is a fake nation indeed.

Why and how all this came out of the mind of a Swiss philosopher who died in France to be posthumously reburied in Pantheon at Paris after the French revolution? To take J. J. Rousseau as per his own words, he thought that through imagination he could reconstitute the History of the Mankind; of course, this thought constitutes in itself an aberration. In the uselessly venerated Discourse on Inequality (1754), he wrote ” The first man who, having fenced in a piece of land, said “This is mine,” and found people naïve enough to believe him, that man was the true founder of civil society”; quite unfortunately for Rousseau and his theories, things did not happen that way, but this was impossible for him to know.

It was actually impossible to form any idea about this subject in the middle of the 18th c., when no Sumerian, no Egyptian Hieroglyphic, no Elamite and no Akkadian texts were deciphered, let alone studied. The only historical past to which J. J. Rousseau had access through modern translations was Ancient Rome and Greece; but these civilizations were too late if compared with the Oriental civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Canaan, Anatolia) where the first human societies were formed as we now know. In addition, J. J. Rousseau never studied the History of India, Central Asia, and China, while he was fully unaware of the then existing early accounts of the pre-Columbian, indigenous civilizations of Mexico and the Andes. Finally, his contempt for the Christian and Islamic cultures and heritage that existed in his time only deprived him from the reality of the historical continuity and finally drove him to baseless theories that lacked any solid background. His ‘philosophy’ was a fully useless and absolutely unrealistic bunch of assumptions as to just how to create a new ‘human being’ in full rejection of the historical mankind.

Like most of the world’s philosophers, J. J. Rousseau was the child of his time, and this means that he was submerged in news and accounts, reports and narrations about settler colonies, such as the Western European establishments in the area of today’s Canada, United States, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and South Africa. One must take into consideration that when J. J. Rousseau was writing, Australia was still an unknown and undiscovered land. These Western European colons were in their outright majority heretics, gangsters and renegades of their own civilization that they had abandoned in order to settle in other continents in vain search of profit, exploitation, and material treasures. These desolate colon settlements, deprived of humanity and morality, full of racism against and hatred for the normal, human, indigenous societies, and passionate for unadulterated crime, merciless exploitation of the others, and discriminatory supremacism, offered J. J. Rousseau his study scope and soon became his model for an ideal society whereby freedom, tolerance, equality and individual rights should prevail. This was an oxymoron! He was simply unable to see that his ideas did not fit the European colons’ feelings and desires, and that he had to search for a model elsewhere. The ensued disaster was quite disproportionate.

Modern theoreticians view this ‘civic nation’ as a ‘non-xenophobic’ form of nationalism, because there is no apparent discrimination among the settlers / citizens of the ‘new’ society as regards their origin; Poles who forget Polish culture, Danes who forget Danish culture, and Dutch who forget Dutch culture are equally welcome in a settler colony; but their all white aliens in Asia, Africa, ‘America’ and ‘Australia’. However, both, modern theoreticians and J. J. Rousseau disregarded totally the reality that these settler colonies gravely and discriminately disrupted the pre-existing order of indigenous, non-white societies and civilizations and that, due to the villainous and criminal identity of the settlers, the disruption of the pre-existing order very often entailed an unprecedented bloodshed or even a multifaceted genocide of disproportionate dimensions. In reality, the ‘civic nation’ is a counterfeit nation, an evil human fabrication, and a vicious immoral order.

No positive outcome can ever originate from the aforementioned rudimentary concepts. In reality, as much tolerant as these civic nations proved to be internally, so intolerant they have been externally. The intolerant character demonstrated by civic nations either to the indigenous nations in whose territories the civic nations were criminally founded (in cases like Canada, US, Australia, etc.) or to other, ‘ethnic nations’ in other parts of the world (like the African Somalis, Oromos and Berbers or the Aramaeans, the Azeris and the Baluch in Asia) reached several times the level of racist paroxysm.

It is not therefore strange that, almost one century after J. J. Rousseau, the adaptation of his civic nation theory by Ernest Renan produced a chain of catastrophic byproducts ranging from the Nazi Reich and the Soviet Union, to China’s Cultural Revolution state and the (under preparation) global state of the so-called New World Order.

Ethnic nation

In striking contrast with the fake concept of ‘civic nation’, ‘ethnic nation’ is the real, historical nation, as it existed throughout centuries and millennia. By themselves and not through the involvement of an external factor, nations feature a common language, origin, religion, culture, and behavioral system.

History demonstrates that, on the basis of the aforementioned fundamental traits, nations can be identified unequivocally; because they represent a common communal feeling of distinct identity, true nations (i.e. ‘ethnic nations’) tend naturally and automatically to function as self-determined entities.

The ‘ethnic nation’, e.g. the historical nation, has been the only generator and promoter of historical civilizations as we have known them. By definition, an ethnic nation is more difficult to manipulate, maneuver and deceive than a fake, ‘civic nation’ that can be created on the spur of the moment. The general sum of all the characteristics of an ethnic nation forms the identity of the nation, and, as this is the result of a slow process that took centuries and millennia to be formed, it is practically impossible to extirpate.

In modern times, Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762 – 1814) made the most convincing and the most comprehensive presentation of what an ethnic nation is. In his venerated Addresses to the German Nation, he revealed the concept of national identity in all its dimensions when forming the exemplary term ‘Germanness’ which has ever since been reproduced in hundreds of copies, such as Romanness, Turkishness, Russianness, Oromoness, Somaliness, Tuaregness, etc.

As it is the real result of History, an ethnic nation is drastically corroborated by means of historical references, and by the ensuing concepts of diachronic existence and national identity, which has in every case several permanent, fundamental traits. To instigate feelings of German patriotism against the French occupation (under Napoleon – in 1808), Fichte referred to the Roman Historian Tacitus who, writing his Annals 1700 years before Fichte composed his flagrant speeches, exemplified German virtues and proverbial heroism.

An ethnic nation organized in a state ordinarily defines nationality as per jus sanguinis (lit. ‘the right of the blood’, i.e. descent from a member of the same nation), and not as per jus soli (lit. ‘the right of the soil’, i.e. birth in the land of the nation), which widely practiced by ‘civic nations’.

It would be wrong to assume that all historical nations are today organized as ‘ethnic nations’. The political choices of the local elites have turned several historical nations into ‘civic nations’ because this suited best their economic – political interests.

On the other hand, it would also be wrong to accept the arbitrary division made by Anthony Smith, who thought that ‘ethnic nations’ belong to non-Western concepts of nationalism as opposed to ‘civic nations’, which reflect the Western view of a settler colony that controls a demarcated territory.

The concept of ‘ethnic nation’ constitutes the rightful global approach to the historical phenomenon of a nation; it is equally Oriental and Occidental – if such division exists, which needs yet to be demonstrated. In what is peremptorily called by ‘Western’ academia as the ‘Western world’, the concept of ‘ethnic nation’ was first described by Herodotus, the Carian Historian who settled in Athens before 2500 years, on the basis of three criteria, namely
– homaimon (‘of the same blood’ / i.e. kinship, origin),

– homoglosson (‘of the same language’ / i.e. common language), and

– homotropon (‘of the same manners’ / i.e. common behavioral system, culture and religion).

However, the concept and the reality of the ‘ethnic nation’ proved to be a major stumbling block for the powers-that-be and for all those who tried to distort and deform the world as per their criminal interests, secret plans, and hidden vicious beliefs. The strength of the national identity was at times revealed as an omnipotent factor able to persistently remain unchanged and unaltered in full defiance of the world’s greatest powers, colonial armies, and diplomatic blackmails or ultimatums.

Civic nation vs. ethnic nation: the fake will always fail

The ominous fact that not all the nations of the world have the privilege to setup their own states and the gruesome reality that hundreds of nations have been monstrously obfuscated within monstrous super-national states clearly indicate that the moving force of the colonial states England, France, and the US, and the ruling administrations of the WW I – WW II Allies fully and systematically supported the concept of ‘civic nation’ and definitely opposed the existence of all ‘ethnic nations’ in many different ways.

The US: a fake nation – realm of gangsters and idiots

This is quite relevant of their nature; the US is by definition a ‘civic state’ that was formed, not as many pretend through secession from the colonial state of England but, via successive, multifaceted genocides of the indigenous nations of the vast territory of which Washington D.C. tragic-comically pretends today to be the unnecessary and unsolicited capital. In real terms of Humanity, Human History, and Humanism, the existence of the criminal state of the US is the greatest scandal and the most evil episode in the History of the Mankind.

The unpardonable acts perpetrated by all the colons, who settled in parts of America north of Mexico, against all the indigenous nations for several centuries before the inception of the US, the inexcusable fact that the decimated, dislodged, marginalized and persecuted indigenous nations were not even consulted in the process of state formation / secession by the so-called Founding Fathers, and the unforgivable attitude demonstrated against the subjugated indigenous nations in their own occupied homelands since 1783 make of the US the World History’s most criminal, most atrocious, and most Satanic institution. Religious, spiritual and philosophical jargon was invented and purposefully used in shameless texts and bogus-declarations to plaster and conceal the above reality.

It is therefore only normal that the diverse instances of the criminal state promoted the evil concept of ‘civic nation’, opposed the human concept of ‘ethnic nation’, viewed with suspicion the ethnic nations’ attitude to derive political legitimacy from their status as homelands of their populations, reviled the ethnic nations’ tendency to function protectively against colonization, occupation, persecution, deracination, racism, physical and spiritual genocide, and constantly denied the right to self-determination, independence and preservation of their National Heritage to ethnic nations peremptorily incorporated in monstrous super-national states (which is the typical case of the Oromos, the Afars, the Sidamas, and the Ogadeni Somalis in Abyssinia – Fake Ethiopia –; the Somalis, the Luo, and the Masai in Kenya; the Furis – of Darfur –, the Beja, and the Nubians in Sudan, and so on).

In a well orchestrated manner, the three colonial states of England, France and the US did their best for ethnic nations not to form a sovereign state (the case of the Azeris whose majority are still under Iranian control is quite indicative), to lose their sovereign state (if they achieved to form one – in this regard, Somalia is the most striking example), or to limit the ethnic nations’ sovereignty to a mere autonomous entity (as in Catalonia) or, even worse, to self-regulated administrative bodies within a civic state (as in Yukatan, Mexico).

France: the world’s most barbaric and inhuman tyranny

Following the so-called French revolution (1789), the establishment of the modern state of France as a ‘civic nation’ on European soil had ominous results for the entire continent and for the world. It first triggered the separation of the world into two fictional and aberrational entities, the West and the East (the Occident and the Orient), theoretically confined to perpetual fight; of course, this was a purely Manicheistic concept, and as such it turned out to be a calamitous reality and a hecatomb for Europe and the rest of the world.

France is not a nation; there is no ethnic nation named ‘France’. On French territory, there have been several ethnic nations that were forced to cohabitate: the Breton nation (Breizh – Brittany), the Bask nation (Euskaldunak), the Catalan nation (Catalunya), the Corsican nation (Corsi), the Occitan nation (lo País d’Òc), the Alsatian-Lorraine populations of the German nation (Elsaß-Lothringen), and the Frankish nation (Langue d’oïl – Standardized Oïl) of the North of today’s France. The latter was imposed as ‘civic nation’ on all the other ‘ethnic nations’ of France as per the tyrannical policies of the French revolutionaries in the 1790s.

The extinction of the subordinated ‘ethnic nations’ was evidently the primary means of survival for the ‘civic nation’ of France; the war declared against the national identity, the cultural heritage, and the native language of France’s ethnic nations other than the Frankish was without precedent in the World History.

When today’s uneducated European politicians and ignorant American statesmen speak of Turkey’s intolerant stance to Kurmanji or Zaza natives, of Iran’s prejudiced attitude against the Azeri, the Baluch and other ethnic minorities, and of Egypt’s bigoted position as regards the Copts, the Nubians, the Beja, and the Berbers, they all forget that the persecution of Breton language in France reached a unique level of paroxysm when Breton schoolchildren were ‘taught’ by the French civic state’s occupation authorities that, in the streets, it was “prohibited to speak Breton and spit on earth”. As early as 1794, the criminal gangster Bertrand Barère declared in the Committee of Public Salvation (Comité de salut public) that “federalism and superstition are speaking the dialect of Lower Brittany” in a contemptuous rejection of communal identity, religion (libeled as ‘superstition’) and language.

In fact, in the name of a democratic society, the most excruciating and brutal imposition of the Standardized Oïl language of France’s North took place, whereas the Frankish ethnic nation became the undisputed model for the new ‘civic nation’ of France. This demonstrates that the genocidal attitude of the French revolutionaries against France’s ethnic nations was similar to the disregard and the disrespect that the American gangsters showed for the subjugated and marginalized indigenous nations across the US territory.

The genocidal attitude of the French revolutionaries is very well documented indeed. Texts dating from the first years after the French Revolution reveal the extent of the deception that led to the aforementioned tyrannical attitude. Here is an example: “Monarchy had its reasons to look like Babel Tower; in Democracy, to leave the citizens ignorant of the national language and incapable of controlling the power is tantamount to high treason”.

Another example of the premeditated genocide (announced by abbot Grégoire in the Committee of Public Instruction in 1793): “In politics, it is far more important than we think to extirpate this diversity of ‘grossly idioms’ (sic!) that merely prolong the infancy of the reason and the senility of the prejudices”. His report was titled “Report on the necessity to annihilate the vernaculars and to universalize the use of the French language”. The terminology used makes even Hitler’s worst and most vicious theories and discourses grow pale.

England: the focus of evil

What the gangsters of the successive US administrations did to the indigenous nations whose territory they confiscated, and what the Frankish nation of France’s North did to all the ethnic nations that were engulfed in the abominable, tyrannical state of the Nouveau Régime, the English did to the Irish, the Scots and the Welsh. In fact, only the processes differed slightly.

English tyranny and monstrosity in Wales

For Wales (Cymru), the troubles started with the Treaty Aberconwy (1277); it was then proved that peace is not always better than the war. After numerous wars between Llewelyn ap Gruffudd and Edward I of England, the treaty granted end of hostilities, but also stipulated that after the death of the King of Wales, Welsh independence would end and the country would become part of England. The treaty was the result of the treachery of minor Welsh princes who had sided with the enemy; these potentates soon become disillusioned and started a revolt in 1282. Llewelyn ap Gruffudd led the revolt and after several battles, he rejected to abandon his nation that his forefathers had ruled since the ‘days of Kamber son Brutus’ (the heroic times’ King of Cambria that was the original name of Wales). He was killed in an ambush during the Battle of Orewin Bridge. As per the barbaric customs of the incestuous English gangsters, Llywelyn’s head was cut off, sent to London and there set up in the city pillory for a day and crowned with ivy (to dishonor the dead Welsh King as king of the outlaws) only to be later carried by a horseman on the point of his lance up to the Gate of the Satanic Tower of London where it was left for more than 15 years.

Llywelyn’s successor Dafydd continued fighting through 1283, until he was captured along with his family, transferred to England, condemned to death by the Satanic Parliament of England, and consecutively hanged, drawn and quartered (: cut into four pieces). Wales was then stripped of all royal insignia, regalia and relics, and Welsh royal properties were robbed and confiscated. The unprecedented English terror did not deter Welsh national feelings, and already in 1294 a revolt was led by Madog ap Llywelyn.

Meanwhile, the infamous Statute of Rhuddlan (1284) had imposed the alien English ‘common law’ to Wales. English authority was successively rejected by Llywelyn Bren (1316 – 1318), who led a rebellion, Owain Lawgoch, who planned twice to invade Wales with French support only to be assassinated by English agents in France (1378), and Owain Glyndwr (King of Wales / Tywysog Cymru 1400 – 1415), who repeatedly defeated the English armies and reunited Wales for some years. The villainous English did not succeed to capture him, and despite the mythical sums of money they promised, they failed to find one Welsh ready to betray Owain Glyndwr, who had opened the Welsh Parliament at Machynlleth and planned to establish two universities.

That’s why the biased, heinous and rancorous playwright William Shakespeare, who felt inferior to the Welsh legend, portrayed Owain Glyndwr negatively as a wild and ominous person with magical powers.

To address the situation in revolted Wales, the paranoid rulers of England passed silly and discriminatory laws in 1402 prohibiting the Welsh from carrying arms, inhabiting fortified towns, and holding any office. As per this aberration, even an Englishman married to a Welsh woman was not allowed to carry arms!

A later stage of English tyranny over Wales was promulgated by the outrageous Laws in Wales Acts (1535 – 1542) when the Welsh language was banned and the Welsh legal system abolished. In an acrimoniously contemptuous manner, this trash paper describes the Welsh language and the will of the Welsh nation to stick to it in this manner: “because that the People of the same Dominion have and do daily use a speche nothing like, ne consonant to the natural Mother Tongue used within this Realm, some rude and ignorant People have made Distinction and Diversity between the King’s Subjects of this Realm, and his Subjects of the said Dominion and Principality of Wales, whereby great Discord Variance Debate Division Murmur and Sedition hath grown between his said Subjects”.

An ethnic nation, when exposed to tyranny and persecution, naturally sticks to its language and religion to best preserve its identity. Similarly, the Welsh enthusiastically welcomed the first complete translation of the Welsh Bible in 1588, and overwhelmingly rejected Anglicanism when the heretic and murderous king Henry VIII broke with Rome and the Pope. Education in Welsh language was made available under different forms and become a basic means of resistance to English occupation in the 16th and the 17th centuries. Religion became also a means of resistance against English tyranny during the 18th c. Welsh Methodist revival and after the definite separation from the Anglican Church in the early 19th c.; in general, Wales remained predominantly Non-conformist, which is tantamount to rejection of Anglicanism.

Welsh nationalism was best manifested in the late 19th c. through the Cymru Fydd movement’s activities that garnered great support among the Welsh for having reinstated Welsh values and ideas; to best propagate the Welsh determination for National Independence, Welsh nationalists evoked Llewelyn ap Gruffudd, making of him the father of Welsh nationalism, and the National Hero of Wales. Late 19th c. and 20th c. socialism in Wales may be due to Wales’ heavy industrialization, but it was also another form of Welsh resistance to English occupation and of Welsh rejection of the English monarchy. The latest offspring of Cymru Fydd is Plaid Cymru, a political party established in 1925 to advocate independent Wales, which has to be declared in the years to come as the national homeland of the entire Welsh nation (6.5 million people worldwide whereas 16.3 million people have acknowledged Welsh ancestry).

English tyranny and monstrosity in Ireland

For Eire (Ireland, Roman Hibernia), divisions, invasions and epidemics have always been constant parameters of life; following the 9th c. Viking invasions, a mixed Irish-Norse ethnic group was shaped. However, after the decline of the Viking presence, the Norman invasion overwhelmed the numerous small Irish kingdoms and progressively involved the king of England for the first time in Ireland in the second half of the 12th c.; however, the Norman control never extended over the entire Irish territory and several indigenous rulers controlled other parts of the island. A certain Irish-Norman community was formed in the first century of Norman prevalence, but the Gaelic identity of the islanders was soon reasserted and re-strengthened. Decimated because the mid 14th c. plague epidemics, Ireland remained peaceful and divided until the middle of the 16th c. when Henry VIII decided to annex the island in 1536. This triggered successive waves of cataclysmic disasters for the Gaelic nation of Ireland and, although it took almost 400 years of struggles for the Irish to regain control over their country, still a part of the island is occupied by England. The English king’s pretext for the annexation (1541) was the fact that Ireland could serve as basis for future rebellions against his throne or for foreign invasions of England.

An early form of reaction against the English rule was attested already in 1569 – 1573 (the Deasmumhain/Desmond Rebellions in the South-Western part of the island); this event was the normal reaction to the biased attitude demonstrated by Elizabeth I in the case of the antagonism and clash between her cousin Thomas Butler (3rd earl of Ormonde) and the leaders of the Irish Gerald and John Fitzgerald. London’s racist policies in Ireland involved land confiscation, abolition of Irish armies, and severe religious oppression of the Catholic faith. Led by James Fitzmaurice, the Irish marked several victories until English barbarism prevailed in 1575; thousands of civilians were killed in the process, and the corridors that gave access to the English military camps used to be decorated with severed heads on permanent basis. Hundreds of Irish military leaders were executed in the years after the end of the rebellion. At the same time, another rebellion took place in England’s north as Catholic English nobles intended to replace the infamous bogus-queen Elizabeth I with Mary of Scotland; because of the intolerable English barbarism demonstrated in both rebellions, Pope Pius V excommunicated the rubbish queen of the English. Few years later, in 1579, the Second Desmond rebellion exploded to express rightful Irish indignation for the English barbarism and due hostility against the English settlers. It ended in 1583 when, after relentless scorched-earth tactics, the English managed to prevail. A clan chief who betrayed the leader of the rebellion, Gerald Earl of Desmond, was rewarded with 1000 pounds of silver from the English government for his high treason. In a typically English and inhuman manner, the earl’s head was sent to the demoniacal queen of England whereas his body was displayed on the walls of Cork.

During the War between Spain and England (1585 – 1604), Ireland became very often the place of brutal conflicts and battles. After the Spanish Armada failed to coordinate with the Irish and efficiently use Ireland as a basis to invade England in 1588, further colonization efforts took place in Ireland. This led to the Nine Years’ War of Liberation of Ireland (1594 – 1603), a liberation struggle that was undertaken by many Irish nobles who rejected the plantation (: colonization) policies at Ulster and marked many victories over the English armies. The island was then again extensively destroyed and scores of population died because of the scorched earth tactics pursued by the English beasts. More than 100000 Irish were killed and more than 30000 English soldiers died as per modest estimates. With a better coordination with the Spaniards, Ireland would have avoided the calamitous destiny it underwent for more than 300 years after the end of this war.

Land confiscation and plantations continued during the 17th c., involving full dispossession of the Irish Catholic landowners and promulgations of vicious, inhuman, anti-Christian, and purely Satanic laws that were shamelessly called ‘Penal Laws’. In the Irish History’s bloodiest century, two periods of revolution (1641 – 1653 and 1689 – 1691) plunged the country in further disaster and caused an unprecedented hecatomb. For seven years (1642 – 1649), the Cónaidhm Chaitliceach na hÉireann (Irish Catholic Confederation) tried to materialize the wishes and the dreams of the Irish nation. Based at Kilkenny, the Irish nobles, clergy and military leaders set up a General Assembly (parliament) and a Supreme Council (government); however, they pledged allegiance to the king of England, because they were naïve enough to imagine that an agreement could ever be reached. The tensions between moderates and radicals, and both sides’ narrow-mindedness proved to be catastrophic for Ireland. As the English king was engulfed in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (England, Ireland and Scotland / 1639 – 1651), it was only normal for him to make concessions to the Irish Confederates in exchange for the dispatch of Irish troops to England to fight for the royalists. This was evidently a serious mistake made by the Irish government. The divisions led to the English re-conquest of Ireland by Cromwell (1649 – 1653), which was the most brutal moment of foreign occupation that Ireland had ever experienced, and to the termination of the Confederation. All Catholic properties on the island were by then confiscated and scores of Irish ‘undesirables’ were sent to the Caribbean as slaves.

For one more time in the 17th c., Ireland became the theater of many battles engaged and many fights undertaken, when the disreputable English parliament dethroned the Catholic king of England James II and replaced him with a foreign swindler and disreputable crook, William of Orange (1688). This was a deliberate case of shameful sedition, which the perverse English eulogized as ‘the glorious revolution’ – which shows the extent of their collective corruption, immorality and deviousness. It was only normal for the Irish Catholics to express their support for the deposed king James II. The war of two kings (Cogadh an Dá Rí), which is called in England the ‘Williamite war in Ireland’, lasted two years (1689 – 1691). Rejected in England, James II was accepted in Ireland and appeared in front of a newly composed Irish Parliament (known as the Patriot Parliament) to restore to the Irish Catholics their long confiscated lands. Although supported by France, James II failed to prevail and was defeated after many fierce battles.

A period of unprecedented tyranny started in the aftermath of the Battle of Aughrim (the last fought by the Irish supporters of James II in 1691); the English euphemistically call this period ‘Protestant Ascendancy’, but in reality it constitutes one of the bleakest moments of European History, as it makes Hitler’s Germany grow pale. The inhuman ‘penal laws’ were reinforced, and the English colons took good care that the Irish fail to repeat their rebellions. Deliberate famine caused the death of ca. half a million Irish in 1740-1741. The Irish Parliament was available only for the English settlers to be elected in, and evil projects were constantly under discussion as to how best destroy the island nation in an irrevocable manner. The worst development was of course the fact that the descendants of the alien colons started viewing Ireland as their native country, which shows that the evil policy of ‘plantations’ had generated a counterfeit entity in Ireland, i.e. a new ‘civic nation’.

Following the Irish Revolution of 1798 and the subsequent Acts of Union (1801), the Irish nation deployed ceaselessly further, well-diversified efforts to achieve national independence in the 19th c. The major historical developments revolve around the following events: the rebellion led by Robert Emmet in 1803, Daniel O’Connell’s campaign to achieve emancipation for his nation (1823) and his establishment of the Repeal Association (1830), the Tithe War (1831 – 1838), the Young Irelanders’ rebellion in 1848 (in the middle of the great famine which was again deliberately caused by the English government in order to reduce the Irish population), the revolution of the Irish Brotherhood in 1867, and the longest and most effective of all, the great Cogadh na Talún (Land War), which was an endless agrarian agitation that was led by the Irish National Land League and lasted from 1870 to 1900. The various Land Acts that the English government was forced to promulgate in the very last years of the 19th c. and in the beginning of the 20th c. heralded the end of the colonial rule. Home Rule was stipulated by an act passed by the English Parliament in 1914. The famous Éirí Amach na Cásca (Easter Rising) in 1916, the ensuing period of upheaval (1916 – 1921), and the threat of Irishmen soldiers fighting for the English army in the Western Front during WW I ushered Ireland into the next stage, i.e. the declaration of independence of the Irish Republic, the Irish War of Independence (1919 – 1921), the Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921 – 1922), the formation of the Irish Free State, the separation of the northern part of the island (the unionist descendents of the colons), and the Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923), which was the last of so many venomous presents that the pernicious English made to the Irish nation.

English tyranny and monstrosity in Scotland

For the Scottish Kingdom of Alba, interaction and mixed marriages with some of the English kingdoms go back to the 11th c., when King Mael Coluim (Malcolm) III (1058 – 1093) spent many years at the court of the English king Edward the Confessor before fighting and killing Mac Bethad mac Findlaích (Macbeth) to become king of Scotland in his stead. Malcolm III and William of Normandy, the bastard king and invader of England, fought several wars before finally meeting in 1072 and making a peace that justified later claims of sovereignty over Scotland by other English kings.

In the early 12th c. the so-called Davidian Revolution, launched by David I of Scotland, marked a stage of adjusting the government and the society to French and English norms, styles and practices. During the 12th and the 13th centuries, increased affinities and greater interaction between the two nations led several Scottish nobles to see in Edward I of England a possible arbiter for the succession of Alexander III of Scotland when 14 contenders to the throne were about the trigger a civil war in 1286. As Edward I tried to undermine Scottish sovereignty, John of Scotland entered into an alliance with France (Auld Alliance) and this ushered both countries into what is called ‘The Wars of Scottish Independence’ (1296 – 1328 and 1332 – 1357).

Scotland was first occupied by England in 1296, but revolt broke already 1297. The ensuing wars were inconclusive, involving many battles, Scottish raids in England, and English campaigns in Scotland, truces, and executions of the Scottish nobles {Uilliam Uallas (William Wallace) in 1305}; it all revolved around the succession to the throne of Scotland and the alliance of some of the pretenders with the English. Three declarations of Scottish independence dating between 1320 and 1328 were sent to the Pope, and finally in 1328, Edward III of England recognized the independence of Scotland by signing the Treaty of Edinburgh – Northampton.

The Second War of Scottish Independence was due to the alliance some Scottish nobles made with Edward III few years later in order to overthrow David II of Scotland and replace him with other pretenders, notably the disreputable thug Balliol who after crowning himself king of Scots declared that Scotland was a fief of England. The French – Scottish alliance was strengthened by the fact that France and England were then engaged in the Hundred Years’ War (1337 – 1453). When David II of Scotland was granted asylum in France (1334) by Philip VI of France, Scottish resistance was led by many Scottish nobles. Victories were marked by both sides until David II returned in 1341. However, in the Battle of Neville’s Cross, David II was captured (1346) and subsequently held prisoner in the Tower of London for eleven years. Released under the terms of the Treaty of Berwick (1357), David II agreed to pay an enormous amount for ransom, and this progressively alienated the Scottish nation from him; at the same time, the country was also devastated by the Black Death pandemics. After David II died (1371), an impoverished, exsanguine Scotland was still an independent nation, and so it remained until 1707 under the Stuart dynasty, a family of Breton origin that had earlier held the office of High Steward of Scotland and, in 1371, rose to the throne of Scotland (Robert II).

During Stuart reign, there were again many interactions and mixed marriages with the English, internal strife between the Scottish kings and the nobles, alliance with France and wars with England (notably the Battle of Flodden in 1513, the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542, and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547). However, when James IV of Scotland married Margaret Tudor, daughter to Henry VII of England, in 1503, the perspective of a union between the two crowns appeared for the first time.

The Scottish Reformation movement influenced greatly the historical developments, and following the signature of the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), the French and the English soldiers left Scotland’s territory and the Scottish Parliament abolished Roman Catholic Christianity. The Scots Confession of 1560 became the formational document of the Reformed Calvinist Christianity to which most of the Scots adhered; it was however enacted in 1567. The Battle of Langside (1568) and the persecution and execution of Queen Mary of Scotland demonstrated the rise of religious fanaticism in Scotland and the ensuing civil war (Scottish aristocrats supporting James VI against Scotland’s nobles who sided with his mother, Queen Mary of Scotland) lasted many years (1569 – 1573).

When James VI of Scotland inherited the throne of England and became James I on England (1603), the two countries were found united under one monarch; however, this was a personal union that did not have the support of the Scottish nation. Quite contrarily, Scots firmly rejected every effort deployed by either James VI of his son, Charles I, to diffuse forms and rites related to Anglicanism, a most reviled and villainous doctrine in Scotland. Re-affirmation of the Scottish identity and cultural integrity was particularly noted in the famous St. Giles riots (1637) when a treacherous effort was made to introduce English-style prayer book into the Scottish Church.

In fact, the troubles had started earlier, when Charles I proceeded to St. Giles in 1633 for his Scottish coronation, using Anglican rites on Scottish territory. As the rejection was overwhelming, Scots were very watchful and when, on 23 July 1637, it became understood that another style was introduced in the Mass, a revolt took place. It started when a brave woman, the legendary Jenny Geddes, a merchant, noticed first the alien style, stood up, and hurled her folding stool toward the Dean of Edinburgh, because he had just started to read the unacceptable, alien text. As her ‘cuttie-stool’ was flying towards the Dean’s head, Jenny Geddes yelled:

  • Devil cause you colic in your stomach, false thief! Dare you say the Mass in my ear?

The religious service was interrupted by the ensuing riot, and although the rioters were removed by the soldiers, the news spread immediately across the city, and a revolt took place in Edinburgh, as the city magistrates were assailed in the City Chambers. The thunderous voice of the Scottish nation was heard, and the authorities were forced to negotiate; a Committee was appointed for the negotiations with the king’s council. As Charles I rejected to withdraw from Scotland the Anglican liturgy, the Scots revolted and the old National Covenant of 1581 was convened again in February 1638. Reformed religion was maintained in the form in which it was spelled out in 1580 and all innovations were rejected; however Scots expressed their loyalty to the king.

The members of the Covenant (also known as Covenanters) confronted the established church. In November 1638, the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland deposed all bishops and banned the prayer book; this ushered Scotland into the Bishops’ Wars (Bellum Episcopale / 1639 – 1640) involving many battles between the Covenanters, the Scottish royalists, and the English army. Weakened in England, Charles I had to compromise and even went to Scotland in 1641 and accepted the decisions of the Scottish Parliament as he had already done with the decrees of the General Assembly of 1638. As per the terms of this compromise, the Scottish Parliament had the right to challenge the actions of his ministers.

During the ensuing Wars of the Three Kingdoms (parts of which are the Scottish Civil War, the Irish Confederate Wars, and the English Civil War / 1639 – 1651), Scotland was effectively ruled by the Covenanters. Scottish army was sent to Ireland against the Irish Rebellion of 1641 with the limited scope of protecting the Scottish settlers. In 1643, the Solemn League and Covenant was promulgated and, as per its terms, the preservation of the religious reform in Scotland was reconfirmed, whereas reformation of religion was demanded for England and Ireland. The Covenanters sent several armies to England to fight for the victory of the Parliament over the king, and the Scottish troops played an important role in inflicting a serious defeat to Charles I. However, this triggered the Civil War in Scotland (1644 – 1647), as the Scottish royalists rejected the Covenanters’ extremism and revolted. Following several battles and an early royalist success, the war ended with Charles I surrendering and being held captive. In a secret Engagement, the imprisoned king promised to help Scots implement Presbyterianism in England; an army was set up for this, but it was destroyed by Cromwell in 1648, and Charles I was subsequently executed (decapitated) in 1649.

Charles II was proclaimed as king by the Parliament of Scotland 6 days after the decapitation of his father, but this was rejected by the English Parliament. After defeating the Scottish royalist army loyal to the son of Charles I in the Battle of Dunbar (September 1650), Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland; he sent the captives back to England where many of them died of starvation and exhaustion, whereas their survivors were sent further on to the Caribbean as slaves. To survive, Charles II had to fight the Battle of Worcester (1651), and after being defeated by Cromwell, he had to escape to Europe where he spent nine years in exile.

Scotland was under severe persecution when incorporated into the Puritan England; there was no independent church, no parliament, no government, and no legal system. The annexation was promulgated by the Tender Union (1652), which abolished the Scottish Parliament, offering Scotland 30 seats in the English Parliament. However, the Act of Union was approved only in 1657 due to the political turmoil.

Following the restoration (1660), Scotland became again an independent kingdom under Charles II, but the re-imposition of episcopacy and a series of other measures were greatly resented by the Scots (they were prevented from any lucrative business in English colonies as per the English Navigation Acts). Independent assemblies, known as conventicles, gathered the support of the majority and led to the revolt of 1679 which was defeated. Scotland was terribly persecuted until 1685 when James VII of Scotland (and James II of England) succeeded his brother; this period has been described as ‘The Killing Time’ and thousands were executed in excruciating manner.

The pro-Catholic measures and policies introduced by James VII led to the sedition of seven English high traitors who invited William of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, to rule England (a bleak moment of European History that the perfidious English shamelessly called ‘glorious revolution’). James VII had to flee, but after the imposition of the Dutch swindler and disreputable crook, supporters of James VII entered into several battles, fighting to overthrow the alien rule of the sexually perverse William of Orange (who ruled as William II of Scotland).

Economic disasters befell Scotland at the very end of the 17th c. due to various combined reasons and this forced the Scottish Parliament to take several measures like setting up the Bank of Scotland and financing a great colonial project (known as Darien scheme); the latter turned into a disaster particularly because the perfidious English of the ‘West Indies’ did not come to help the Scots colons when they were attacked by the Spaniards (1698).

The union with England (1707 at the times of the reign of Queen Anne, the daughter of James VII) was a desperate act taken without serious thought and after many years of economic adversity. By 110 to 69, the Scottish Parliament adopted the Treaty of Union in January 1707, making of Scotland a mere province of England and replacing all Scottish systems of laws, taxation and currency with the respective English practices. The union was a panacea for Scotland’s aristocracy and landowners, but it was widely reviled and loathed by the outright majority of the Scottish nation.

The three centuries of annexation failed to erase the Scottish national identity, cultural integrity, linguistic diversity, and behavioral difference. Scotland remained another nation, an ‘ethnic nation’ incorporated into the realm of the UK’s ‘civic nation’. The Scots tried many times to reject the English rule that so thoughtlessly a meager majority supported before 307 years.

The unpopularity of Scotland’s annexation to England generated many rebellions and already in 1708, James Francis Edward Stuart, son of James VII, attempted to land to Scotland with 6000 French soldiers and join forces with his supporters who became known as Jacobites. In 1715, the indignation against the rise of George I as successor to Anne of England led to generalized revolt in Wales, Scotland, and parts of England. The Jacobites lost several battles before James landed in Scotland, and he had therefore to flee back to France. In 1719, the Jacobites counted on Spanish assistance, but were finally defeated on the Battle of Glen Shiel. In 1745, James’ son, Charles Edward Stuart, landed in the Hebrides and, after gathering support, he sailed to Scotland and invaded Edinburgh. He did not only prevail over the English forces in the Battle of Prestonpans, but advanced into England, besieging and taking several cities as far as Derby. However, there he failed to get support for a Stuart Catholic restoration in the country, and he retreated to Scotland as an English army was approaching. Petty politics prevailed over the national Scottish case, and the liberals managed to regain control of Edinburgh. Following several battles and defeats, and after hiding for several months, Charles had to sail back to France in 1746. Genocidal practices were attested then, as the English army deliberately killed dozens of thousands of Scots, while sending scores to the English colonies as slaves. Gradually, Jacobitism waned and failed to gather support from the main Catholic courts of Europe. With the death of the last pretenders, this movement reached an end.

Terrible oppression matched with extensive corruption was the English method employed in order to preserve Scotland within the loathsome and tyrannical English state. By offering career opportunities and business chances to middle and upper-middle class Scots, the English government tried to make them expatriate to England and in the process lose their identity, language, and culture. In other words, they tried to turn Scotland’s ‘ethnic nation’ into a ‘civic nation’.

Lawless, evil legislation was then produced en masse in England for the purpose of Scotland’s disfigurement, identity destruction, language loss, and cultural disintegration. The Dress Act, the Act of Proscription, the Clan Act, the Disarming Act, and the Heritable Jurisdictions Act, all promulgated in 1746, prohibited Scottish language, forbidding every single aspect of Scottish culture, and crushing the Scottish clan system. In the process, it was prohibited for Scots to bear arms and wear tartans, whereas forced displacement deracinated hundreds of thousands of Scots from the Highlands where the rejection of the catastrophic union was overwhelming. It was an accomplished ethnic cleansing of the Scottish Highlands with full scale transportation of Scottish clans to other locations.

Scottish Law was abolished and jurisdiction by Scottish clan chief prohibited; English Law was imposed instead. ‘Justifying’ the destruction of an ‘ethnic nation’ and the Nazi-like imposition of a ‘civic nation’, Lord Hardwicke rejected the concept of multiple jurisdictions, stating that ‘private jurisdictions’ (as he described the Scottish traditional Law) would endanger liberty by encroaching on the legal authority of a constitutional monarchy. This is enough to make clear how fake a ‘civic nation’ is and how tyrannical it can be.

Pseudo-Christian school prayers for the king of England and his disreputable family were enforced throughout Scotland, whereas many other methods were devised to prevent children from being attached to their Scottish national identity, social organization, linguistic continuity, and cultural integrity (which were called in a typical Nazi-like manner ‘rebellious principles’).

The Highland Clearances are a shameful English euphemism for what is known among Scots as Fuadach nan Gàidheal, i.e. “the expulsion of the Gael”. They consisted in a century-long practice of forced displacement of Scotland’s most authentic, conscious, and traditional part of population. Under the pretext of setting up enclosures for sheep in order to revolutionize agriculture, the Nazi-like government of England expelled the indigenous inhabitants who represented a millennia long historical continuity in their homeland, i.e. Northern Scotland (the Highlands).

The main target was neither the land confiscation – expropriation to the benefit of some noble landowners nor the eviction of the inhabitants who relied on small scale agriculture, but the systematic destruction of the Scottish Gaelic culture. The forced emigration was of unprecedented scale, involving forced resettlement in the Scottish lowlands and the sea coast, and further on to North America or other English colonies in Asia and Australia. The series of events described as ‘clearances’ lasted from the mid 18th c. until the 2nd half of the 19th c. and the result was the total destruction of Scotland’s cultural topography; today, more descendents of the Highlanders live in America, Asia and Australia than in Scotland.

Some of the worst moments of the century-long ethnic cleansing occurred in the so-called Year of the Sheep (Bliadhna nan Caorach – 1792), when tenant farmers arranged a spectacular protest, removing more than 6000 sheep from the land around Ardross. Another particularly atrocious period was the decade 1811 – 1820, when it was common to evict 2000 families in one single day, fully expropriating them from their ancestors’ land. The disreputable and incestuous English aristocracy was the major accomplice in the process as they became the landowners of the confiscated lands; their racist, inhuman and Satanic mentality was epitomized by a sentence written by the filthy duchess of Sutherland in her correspondence with an Englishman: “Scotch people are of happier constitution and do not fatten like the larger breed of animals”. (http://www.heraldscotland.com/comment/columnists/the-duchess-the-highland-clearances-the-housekeeper-and-a-story-to-make-you-weep.24229043)

Living in England at the time, Karl Marx described the Highland Clearances as spoliation, fraud, robbery and usurpation carried out under ‘reckless terrorism’. In the middle of the 19th c., an entire school of racist philosophers, theoreticians and ideologists rose to pro-eminence in England, trying to ‘prove’ in a ‘scientific’ manner that the Scottish Celtic race was inferior to the Anglo-Saxon; it gathered overwhelming support among the bastard ‘civic nation’ of England.

For Alex Salmond, Scotland’s First Minister, unveiling a 3 m high bronze named ‘Exiles’ in Helmsdale, Sutherland (July 2007) was a minimal contribution to the Immortalizing of the thousands of dead, emigrated and persecuted Scots.

Scottish literature became for centuries a means of anti-English resistance, and among many great poets of the Ossian circle, Robert Burns (1759 – 1796), Scotland’s national poet, proved to be the herald of the Gaelic Revival in the late 19th c., of the Scottish Renaissance in the 20th c., and of the Scottish Gaelic Renaissance in our times. The Scottish Covenant, proposed in 1930, promoted in 1939, and signed by two million people in 1951, exemplified these demands, whereas the Scottish Unionist Party declined and was duly dissolved finally in 1965. As devolution referenda strengthened Scots’ political consciousness, the Scottish National Party gathered momentum.

A higher stage was attained when Mike Russell, Member of the Scottish Parliament (SNP), spoke in Scottish Gaelic in a European Union meeting in May 2010. It became evident that full independence, and not mere home rule, is the demand of Scotland’s new generation. Alex Salmond’s defeat in the Independence Referendum (18/9/2014) reflects basically a wrong choice; instead of viewing Scots as a ‘civic nation’, SNP must rediscover and reassert Scotland’s ethnic nation in all its characteristics, dimensions and capacities.

Scotland – the Referendum for Independence, and the reasons of a temporary failure

By Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis

 

 

When the first results were announced (as there were no exit polls), it became clear that Scotland had lost a once-in-a-generation chance to become independent. This does not mean that Occupied Scotland will stay within the so-called United Kingdom for another 20 or 30 years, but it makes clear that there will be no change for the next 5-6 years for sure.

 

What was the reason for No-vote to prevail?

 

Scottish independence leader Alex Salmond and his team underwent a great effort in which a great historical perspective was missing. The Yes-campaign supporters were offered too little of a vision to make of Scotland’s independence their basic need of existence.

 

Lack of Inspiring Vision & Disregard for Historical and National Identity

 

As per the details of a presentation elaborated by an outfit of the Yes-campaign (http://www.independentscotland.org/content/voting-YES-for-scottish-independence.htm), no 1 reason to vote Yes for an Independent Scotland was or should be “Taking Responsibility by moving all Governing Powers to Scotland”; no 2 reason was or should be “Get the Government we choose”, and the minor reasons included financial benefits, irrelevant issues of international affairs (nuclear weapons), and a very weak denunciation of a ‘forced political marriage’ (the innocuous term was coined to describe the nefarious English annexation of Scotland).

 

A very simple Google search will remove the last doubts about the main reason for which the Yes-campaign failed to gather the support of more than 45% of the voters. If you write “Occupied Scotland” (in brackets), you have around 58000 results only (which is very low a number), and if you search for the contents, you realize that they are mainly historical of nature and they refer to Viking Crusaders, king Edward of England, who was known as the ‘Hammer of the Scots’, and Cromwell! Very scarce links to political analysis and/or editorials can be found in the search.

 

If Scotland is not viewed by Scots as ‘Occupied by England’, Scots will not find the need to do all that it takes to liberate their country.

 

This means in other words that, even for Yes-campaign supporters, today’s Scotland is NOT an Occupied country, which is of course very wrong. Certainly, the means and the conditions of Scotland’s foreign occupation are not similar to those attested in Occupied Palestine or Occupied Oromia in Africa, but this reality does not lessen the fact that Scotland has been occupied since 1707, after having been targeted and threatened, aggressed and attacked by England for centuries.

 

A country is always occupied by an enemy; this is an undeniable fact in World History. There is no such thing as a ‘friendly occupation’. Trying to minimize the inimical character and nature of a foreign occupation does never bode well with the occupied nation’s aspirations and chances to achieve liberation, independence and self-determination.

 

When a hostile country invades a nation, the occupying forces try to find immoral, corrupt, and idiotic persons that, placing their personal interests above the national interests of their Occupied Land, find it normal, easy and ethical to collaborate with the occupier. Outmaneuvering this plague is by definition one of the major targets and tasks of a national liberation effort.

 

In the case of Scotland, these catastrophic persons were very active indeed in the last weeks before the referendum, and they intend to remain as such thereafter simply because this issue did not end. The disreputable former prime minister (who was never elected to that post) Gordon Brown is one of them; as he knows how to be a loyal lackey to the City, he has just announced a new Scotland Act to be ready as draft legislation by the end of January 2015 (http://www.theguardian.com/politics/video/2014/sep/20/gordon-brown-timeline-scottish-devolution-independence-video). Gordon Brown, Alistair Darling and their likes know very well that the spectrum of Scotland’s Independence will only become more forceful in the years ahead; and with ridiculous measures of advanced devolution, they try to appease and besot more Scots. These are the enemies who should have been denounced in the most stressed terms.

 

Unfortunately, First Minister Alex Salmond and the Yes-campaign supporters failed to duly, fully and irrevocably discredit Gordon Brown and his likes as they should. To do so, they should have first properly and adequately presented Scotland as an Occupied Land, and they should have underscored, and focused, on issues of Historical and National Identity. That they did not attempt anything in this direction is clearly shown in their way of presenting (http://www.independentscotland.org/content/voting-no-for-scottish-independence.htm) the possible reasons to vote No. As per their presentation, no 1 reason is: ‘believing England and Scotland are better off together’. However, for a Scot, this ‘belief’ is tantamount to high treason.

 

It is exactly the same as if Marshal Philippe Pétain said, after signing the Second Armistice at Compiègne on 22 June 1940, that he ‘believed France and Germany are better off together’. In this regard, it is important to keep in mind that political correctness does not validate (neither does it invalidate) demands for national servility and submission. Simply, national capitulation is a matter of high treason – anytime anywhere.

 

The lack of an inspiring vision of an Independent Scotland dramatically reduced the scope of the Yes-campaign. National independence is something far higher than mere economic considerations, natural resources exploitation, and cheap anti-nuclear ideology.

 

What does it matter whether the divorce is going to be ‘messy’ (as per Jill Lawless here: http://www.sfgate.com/news/world/article/Scottish-independence-could-mean-messy-divorce-5754503.php)? And if it is ‘complicated’ to divorce after a 300-year union, it is even more unacceptable to call a foreign occupation merely a ‘union’. Actually, it was not a union; it was a systematic burial of an entire nation, and a sophisticated, yet not brutal, genocide – mainly spiritual, not physical, of character.

 

Ill-conceived Eligibility

 

At the practical level, one should however begin pondering about a key issue that, if viewed and considered differently, would change – in and by itself – the result of the referendum automatically.

 

Who voted for Scotland’s Independence?

 

For the national independence of a country, only those, who belong to that nation, have a birth right to have a say, and therefore to vote. In this regard, it is paranoid to offer voting right to another nation’s citizens. And it is self-disastrous to offer voting right to the hostile nation’s citizens, who are to be considered as the first enemies of the occupied land, and as the most resolute opponents of the occupied nation’s right and will to achieve national independence.

 

Quite paradoxically, the 2010 Draft Bill extended the voting right in the referendum to all the British citizens who were resident in Scotland!

 

This is tantamount to offering the voting right to Nazi soldiers in a referendum held in Occupied France 1940-1944!

 

Occupiers have by definition no right to decide on anything about the future of the country that they hold captive.

 

However, a significant number of English, Welsh and North Irish live in Scotland; offering them the voting right in the referendum for Scotland’s independence was indeed the main reason for the calamitous result. According to an estimate, around 500000 English live in Occupied Scotland (http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2753400/Revealed-How-half-million-English-voters-living-Scotland-set-block-independence.html). They should have been blocked out of the referendum.

 

Another paranoid measure was to offer voting right to all the citizens of the 52 other Commonwealth countries and to all the citizens of the 27 other European Union countries who were resident in Scotland. This means that a Sri Lankan, a Nigerian, an Arawakan from Guyana, and a Bulgarian would have a say about the future of a nation to which they did not belong and even did not bother to belong. It should be anticipated that, if invited to participate, these foreigners would only care about per their own interests, and not about the genuine local interests – let alone the interests of Scotland as a nation. As it could be expected, in their majority, they voted against Scotland’s independence.

 

Another incredible measure was preventing ca. 800000 Scots living south of the borderline between England and Scotland from voting. In fact, all Scottish expatriates did not have a vote, which is a matter of indignation and outrage. As early as January 2012, Elaine Murray, a Labor party member of the Scottish Parliament, demanded that the voting right be extended to Scots living in other parts of the UK, but the debate was opposed by the Scottish government itself! Ridiculous excuses were advanced at the time such as that the UN Human Rights Committee suggested that other nations would question the legitimacy of a referendum if the franchise is not territorial, and the like!

 

Ill-defined Future

 

Except the lack of a great vision, the disregard for the National Identity, and the paranoid extension of voting right to the enemies of Scotland’s independence, Alex Salmond and his team made many wrong suggestions and decisions about what Independent Scotland would look like. In fact, they acted as if they intended to minimize as maximum as possible the otherwise shocking dimensions of a secession. This can be really detrimental in politics.

 

If something, which is shocking by its nature, ceases to be shocking for one reason or for another, people lose their appetite for it and disrespect it altogether. What follows is a list of mistakes ensuing from this very erroneous perception of politics.

 

If Scotland seceded from England, Elizabeth II would still be the monarch of the kingdom of Scotland. This is preposterous! The Republic of Scotland would be a far clearer vision and a far happier perspective; as such they would motivate a greater number of more enthusiastic supporters. Today, the fact that Scotland and England shared a monarch for almost a century before the two countries ‘united politically’ in 1707 does not matter much. And it certainly does not mean that, after separating from England, Scotland needs to be organized as a kingdom, and not as a republic.

 

  • Confiscate Balmoral!

 

This would be the correct slogan for a passionate debate among only Scots.

 

Another mistake of the Scottish government was to promise Scottish citizenship to non-Scottish, British citizens living in Scotland, as well as to Scotland-born Britons who live elsewhere. Although this measure showed a certain magnanimous spirit, it would not change in anything the vicious vote intension of the English residents in Scotland. So, as they should never be given a voting right, they should never be promised Scottish nationality.

 

In a materialistic world, mass media-guided, brainless and thoughtless populations are forced to consider economic issues as vitally important for their otherwise valueless lives. However, assuming that political pragmatism is necessary, one understands the reason economic issues are dealt with great concern by politicians, advocates, activists and campaigners.

 

But then it was a terrible mistake for Alex Salmond and his team to announce that the pound sterling would remain Scotland’s official currency after a Yes-victory in the referendum. Global mass media tried to portray an Independent Scotland as a small country in a dangerous global environment. Mark Carney, the Governor of the Bank of England, stated even that ‘a currency union is incompatible with sovereignty’ in an indirect form of blackmailing. Yet, the only real economic danger is for Scotland to remain within a financially collapsed state, like England that has a 10 trillion external debt to serve. In reality, escaping from bankrupt England should have been reason good enough even for English residents in Scotland to vote in favor of Scotland’s independence. In this regard a clear language should have been articulated in total opposition to the global mass media and the criminal gangsters of the City.

 

In fact, there have been bloggers and writers who saw this reality, like Ian R. Crane (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muiZCgC7QB4) and Ellen Brown (http://www.globalresearch.ca/a-public-bank-option-for-scotland/5402542). Ian R. Crane was very right in demanding an independent Central Bank of Scotland, a new currency for Scotland, strict currency controls for at least the first 3 years of Scotland’s independence, nationalization of the energy sector, and Scotland’s immediate withdrawal from EU and NATO. And Ellen Brown was quite correct in her prediction: “If Alex Salmond and the SNP [Scottish National Party] are serious about keeping the Pound Stirling as the Currency of Scotland, there will be no independence”.

 

In fact, in the atmosphere that enveloped the referendum, there was too much of material concern and a very weak expression of national idealism; this does not constitute the correct combination to speak to the soul of the Scots. Another language will be needed in this regard in perhaps 5 or 10 years. What language? Pure Scottish! As the great Scottish poet and lyricist Robert Burns (1759 – 1796), the national poet of Scotland, put it: “We are bought and sold for English gold. Such a parcel of rogues in a nation”!